Lean Production
Lecture Outline
Lean Production
Waste in Operations
Waste in Operations (cont.)
Waste in Operations (cont.)
Basic Elements
Flexible Resources
Standard Operating Routine for a Worker
Cellular Layouts
Cells with Worker Routes
Worker Routes Lengthen as Volume Decreases
Pull System
Kanbans
Sample Kanban
Origin of Kanban
Types of Kanban
Small Lots
Components of Lead Time
Quick Setups
Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time
Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time (cont.)
Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time (cont.)
Uniform Production Levels
Quality at the Source
Examples of Visual Control
Examples of Visual Control (cont.)
Examples of Visual Control (cont.)
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
TPM Requirements
Supplier Networks
Benefits of Lean Production
Benefits of Lean Production (cont.)
Implementing Lean Production
Lean Services
1.97M

ch15

1. Lean Production

Chapter 15
Lean Production
Operations Management - 5th Edition
Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, III
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2. Lecture Outline

Basic Elements of Lean Production
Benefits of Lean Production
Implementing Lean Production
Lean Services
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3. Lean Production

Doing more with less inventory, fewer
workers, less space
Just-in-time (JIT)
smoothing the flow of material to arrive
just as it is needed
“JIT” and “Lean Production” are used
interchangeably
Muda
waste, anything other than that which
adds value to the product or service
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4. Waste in Operations

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5. Waste in Operations (cont.)

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6. Waste in Operations (cont.)

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7. Basic Elements

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Flexible resources
Cellular layouts
Pull production system
Kanban production control
Small lot production
Quick setups
Uniform production levels
Quality at the source
Total productive
maintenance
Supplier networks
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8. Flexible Resources

Multifunctional workers
perform more than one job
general-purpose machines perform
several basic functions
Cycle time
time required for the worker to complete
one pass through the operations
assigned
Takt time
The pace at which production should
take place to match customer demand
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9. Standard Operating Routine for a Worker

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10. Cellular Layouts

Manufacturing cells
comprised of dissimilar machines brought
together to manufacture a family of parts
Cycle time is adjusted to match takt time
by changing worker paths
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11. Cells with Worker Routes

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12. Worker Routes Lengthen as Volume Decreases

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13. Pull System

Material is pulled through the system when
needed
Reversal of traditional push system where
material is pushed according to a schedule
Forces cooperation
Prevent over and underproduction
While push systems rely on a predetermined
schedule, pull systems rely on customer
requests
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14. Kanbans

Card which indicates standard quantity
of production
Derived from two-bin inventory system
Maintain discipline of pull production
Authorize production and movement of
goods
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15. Sample Kanban

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16. Origin of Kanban

a) Two-bin inventory system
b) Kanban inventory system
Bin 1
Kanban
Bin 2
Reorder
card
Q-R
R
R
Q = order quantity
R = reorder point - demand during lead time
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17. Types of Kanban

Production kanban
authorizes production of
goods
Signal kanban
Withdrawal kanban
authorizes movement of
goods
Kanban square
a marked area designated
to hold items
Material kanban
used to order material in
advance of a process
Supplier kanban
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a triangular kanban
used to signal
production at the
previous workstation
rotates between the
factory and suppliers
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18.

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19.

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20.

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21.

Determining Number of
Kanbans
No. of Kanbans =
average demand during lead time + safety stock
container size
dL + S
N =
C
where
N
d
L
S
C
= number of kanbans or containers
= average demand over some time period
= lead time to replenish an order
= safety stock
= container size
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22.

Determining Number of
Kanbans: Example
d
L
S
C
= 150 bottles per hour
= 30 minutes = 0.5 hours
= 0.10(150 x 0.5) = 7.5
= 25 bottles
(150 x 0.5) + 7.5
dL + S
N=
=
25
C
75 + 7.5
=
= 3.3 kanbans or containers
25
Round up to 4 (to allow some slack) or
down to 3 (to force improvement)
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23. Small Lots

Require less space and capital
investment
Move processes closer together
Make quality problems easier to
detect
Lower inventory levels
Make processes more dependent on
each other
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24.

Inventory Hides Problems
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25.

Less Inventory Exposes Problems
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26. Components of Lead Time

Processing time
Reduce number of items or improve efficiency
Move time
Reduce distances, simplify movements, standardize
routings
Waiting time
Better scheduling, sufficient capacity
Setup time
Generally the biggest bottleneck
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27. Quick Setups

Internal setup
Can be performed
only when a
process is stopped
External setup
Can be performed
in advance
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SMED Principles
Separate internal setup from
external setup
Convert internal setup to external
setup
Streamline all aspects of setup
Perform setup activities in
parallel or eliminate them entirely
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28. Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time

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29. Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time (cont.)

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30. Common Techniques for Reducing Setup Time (cont.)

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31. Uniform Production Levels

Result from smoothing production
requirements
Kanban systems can handle +/- 10%
demand changes
Smooth demand across planning
horizon
Mixed-model assembly steadies
component production
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32.

Mixed-Model Sequencing
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33. Quality at the Source

Visual control
makes problems visible
Poka-yokes
prevent defects from
occurring
Kaizen
a system of continuous
improvement; “change for
the good of all”
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Jidoka
authority to stop the
production line
Andons
call lights that signal
quality problems
Under-capacity
scheduling
leaves time for planning,
problem solving, and
maintenance
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34. Examples of Visual Control

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35. Examples of Visual Control (cont.)

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36. Examples of Visual Control (cont.)

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37. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Breakdown maintenance
Repairs to make failed machine operational
Preventive maintenance
System of periodic inspection and
maintenance to keep machines operating
TPM combines preventive maintenance
and total quality concepts
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38. TPM Requirements

Design products that can be easily produced
on existing machines
Design machines for easier operation,
changeover, maintenance
Train and retrain workers to operate machines
Purchase machines that maximize productive
potential
Design preventive maintenance plan spanning
life of machine
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39.

5S Scan
Seiri
(sort)
Seiton
(set in order)
Seisou
(shine)
Seiketsu
(standardize)
Shisuke
(sustain)
Goal
Keep only what you
need
A place for
everything and
everything in its
place
Cleaning, and
looking for ways to
keep clean and
organized
Maintaining and
monitoring the first
three categories
Sticking to the rules
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Eliminate or Correct
Unneeded equipment, tools, furniture;
unneeded items on walls, bulletins; items
blocking aisles or stacked in corners;
unneeded inventory, supplies, parts; safety
hazards
Items not in their correct places; correct
places not obvious; aisles, workstations, &
equipment locations not indicated; items not
put away immediately after use
Floors, walls, stairs, equipment, & surfaces
not lines, clean; cleaning materials not easily
accessible; labels, signs broken or unclean;
other cleaning problems
Necessary information not visible; standards
not known; checklists missing; quantities and
limits not easily recognizable; items can’t be
located within 30 seconds
Number of workers without 5S training;
number of daily 5S inspections not performed;
number of personal items not stored; number
of times job aids not available or up-to-date
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40. Supplier Networks

Long-term supplier contracts
Synchronized production
Supplier certification
Mixed loads and frequent deliveries
Precise delivery schedules
Standardized, sequenced delivery
Locating in close proximity to the customer
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41. Benefits of Lean Production

Reduced inventory
Improved quality
Lower costs
Reduced space requirements
Shorter lead time
Increased productivity
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42. Benefits of Lean Production (cont.)

Greater flexibility
Better relations with suppliers
Simplified scheduling and control activities
Increased capacity
Better use of human resources
More product variety
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43. Implementing Lean Production

Use lean production to finely tune an
operating system
Somewhat different in USA than Japan
Lean production is still evolving
Lean production isn’t for everyone
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44. Lean Services

Basic elements of lean
production apply equally to
services
Most prevalent applications
lean retailing
lean banking
lean health care
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45.

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for
errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the
use of the information herein.
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