Motivation and emotions
1. Motivation
Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation
Primary motives
Secondary motives
2. The main theories of motivation Maslow’s theory
Maslow’s theory of motivation (continuation)
Homeostatic drive theory
Drive reduction theory
Goal theory
3. Emotions
Emotions and feelings
Mood and Emotion. Differences
4. .
Primary emotions
Secondary emotions
Positive and negative emotions
5. Theories of emotion. Early theories
The James-Lange theory of emotion
The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion
The Plutchik’s theory of emotion
Ekman's research
Affective events theory
Affective events theory (continuation)

Motivation and emotions

1. Motivation and emotions

1. Motivation. Primary and secondary
2. The main theories of motivation.
3. Definitions of emotion, feeling, affect,
4. Classification of emotions.
5. Theories of emotion.

2. 1. Motivation

Motivation is the conscious or unconscious
stimulus for action towards a desired goal
provided by psychological or social factors;
that which gives purpose or direction to



4. Intrinsic motivation

refers to motivation that is driven by an interest
or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within
the individual rather than relying on any
external pressure. Intrinsic Motivation is based
on taking pleasure in an activity rather working
towards an external reward.

5. Extrinsic motivation

refers to the performance of an activity in order
to attain an outcome, which then contradicts
intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes
from outside of the individual. Common
extrinsic motivations are rewards like money
and grades, coercion and threat of punishment.


Motive - a reason for a certain course of
action, whether conscious or unconscious

7. Primary motives

help us to satisfy basic needs, such as those for
food, drink, warmth, and shelter. These needs
have to be satisfied to ensure survival and they
do not respond readily to attempts to control
them voluntarily - one reason why it is so hard
to regulate. Some of them are cyclical (e.g
eating and drinking) and the force with which
they are felt increases and decreases in a more
or less regular way.

8. Secondary motives

(such as friendship or freedom) are acquired or
learned, and the needs they satisfy may, or may
not, be indirectly related to primary motives.
Some secondary motives are easily recognized:
the need for friendship, or for independence, or
being nice to someone out of guilt. Others may
be outside conscious awareness, such as those
things that I do to enhance or
protect my self-esteem.

9. 2. The main theories of motivation Maslow’s theory

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
in 1954 constructed
a hierarchy ranging from
lower level needs,
satisfying which reduces deficiencies in
physiological systems (needs for food and
water), to higher level personal or abstract

10. Maslow’s theory of motivation (continuation)

Maslow believed that higher level needs will
only emerge when lower level needs are
The value of this theory has mainly been in
the impetus it provided to the development of
humanistic types of therapy.


Hierarchy of needs (Maslow’s pyramid)

12. Homeostatic drive theory

The basic idea in this theory is that it is
important to maintain a reasonably constant
internal environment. Any move away from this,
or imbalance, prompts action to restore the
balanced state. The action is 'driven' by the
sense of imbalance, and
continues until the balance
is restored: hunger send us
to the kitchen.

13. Drive reduction theory

incorporated ideas about reinforcement into the
basic homeostatic theory, suggesting that
behaviors that successfully reduce a drive, like
eating when you are hungry, will be experienced
as pleasurable and thus be reinforced. The
motivation to continue the behavior decreases
as the drive is satisfied. We should
therefore slow down, or stop eating
when no longer hungry.

14. Goal theory

attempts to explain why we do what we do in
terms of cognitive factors, suggesting that the
key to someone's motivation is what they are
consciously trying to do: their goal. This theory
suggests that people will work harder, and use
more resources when the goal is harder to
achieve, and the harder the goal
the higher the level of performance.

15. 3. Emotions

Emotions, in general, are complex evaluative
(positive or negative) reactions of the
nervous system in response to external or
internal stimuli.

16. Feeling

A feeling is a sensation that has been checked
against previous experiences and labelled. It is
personal and biographical because every person
has a distinct set of previous sensations. An
infant does not experience feelings because
she/he lacks both language and biography.

17. Emotion

An emotion is the projection/display of a feeling.
Unlike feelings, the display of emotion can be
either genuine or feigned. We broadcast
emotion to the world; sometimes that broadcast
is an expression of our internal state and other
times it is contrived in order to fulfill social

18. Emotions and feelings

Emotions are measurable physical responses to
salient stimuli. For example: the increased
heartbeat and perspiration that accompany fear,
the extra muscle tension that accompanies
Feelings are the subjective experiences that
sometimes accompany these processes: the
sensations of happiness, envy, sadness, and so

19. Affect

An affect is a non-conscious experience of
intensity; it is a moment of unformed and
unstructured potential.


Feelings are personal and biographical,
emotions are social, and affects are prepersonal.
Affect is the most abstract because affect cannot
be fully realised in language, and because affect
is always prior to and/or outside of
consciousness (Massumi, Parables). Affect is the
body’s way of preparing itself for action in a
given circumstance by adding a quantitative
dimension of intensity to the quality of an


Emotions have been defined as biobehavioral
systems comprising at least four core
(a) a subjective experience,
(b) a physiological reaction,
(c) an expressive component (e.g.,
a facial expression), and
(a) a behavioral response.


For example, the emotion of fear comprises the
subjective experience of apprehension, the
physiological reaction of increased heart rate and
general sympathetic activation, the facial
expression of raised eyebrows and wide-open eyes,
and the behavioral response of either freezing or
fleeing. These components occur as part of an
intense, coordinated response that lasts for a very
brief period of time, usually for only a matter of
seconds or minutes. Affective experiences
comprising these four components have been
conceptualized as basic emotions.

23. Moods

Moods have an evaluative quality of being
either positive or negative and can vary in
relative intensity and duration. Additionally, the
concept of mood includes an array of lowintensity states (e.g., calm, quiet, sleepy) and
mixed states (e.g., nostalgia) that are not
traditionally considered to represent emotions.

24. Mood and Emotion. Differences

1. Therefore, moods encompass a broader range
of subjective states than classically defined
2. Whereas emotions are brief and intense,
moods can be less dramatic and can last much


3. Emotions have an identifiable trigger or event
that activates the coordinated response, moods
often seem to arise without a clear trigger or
reference point and later dissipate without a
clear intervention or change in the environment.

26. 4. .

4. Emotions

27. Primary emotions

(i.e., innate emotions) depend on limbic system
circuitry, with the amygdale and anterior
cingulate gyrus being ‘key players’.
anger, fear, disgust, surprise, wonder …

28. Secondary emotions

(i.e., feelings attached to objects, events, and
situations through learning) require additional
input, based largely on memory, from the
Thoughts and emotions are interwoven: every
thought, however bland, almost always carries
with it some emotional undertone, however
homesickness, love, pride, shame, guilt …



Positive (have
beneficial effects for
Negative (have
destructive effects
for personality)

31. Positive and negative emotions

Emotions are not intrinsically positive or
negative; some emotions, conceptualised as
negative, are actually beneficial for an
individual, and vice versa.
Give your own examples

32. 5. Theories of emotion. Early theories

Early psychological studies of emotion tried to
determine whether a certain emotion arose before the
action, simultaneously with it, or as a response to
automatic physiological processes.
The characteristic expression of emotion was studied
extensively by Charles Darwin (1809-1882),
resulting in the classic “The Expression of the
Emotions in Man and Animals” (1872).
He examined the evolution of emotional
responses and facial expressions.

33. The James-Lange theory of emotion

In 1884 James published what became
known as the James-Lange theory of
emotion whose main contention is that
we feel as we do in virtue of the bodily
expressions and behaviour that we are
prompted towards, rather than the
other way round: ‘our feeling of the
changes as they occur is the emotion’.

34. The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

In the 1960s, the Schachter-Singer theory
(“The two-factor theory of emotion”)
pointed out that cognitive processes, not
just physiological reactions, played a
significant role in determining emotions.
They suggested that bodily states must be
accompanied by cognitive appraisal for an
emotion to occur.

35. The Plutchik’s theory of emotion

Robert Plutchik developed (1980) a
theory showing eight primary human
emotions: joy, acceptance, fear,
submission, sadness, disgust, anger,
and anticipation, and argued that all
human emotions can be derived from


Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions


Psychologists Sylvan Tomkins (1963) and Paul
Ekman (1982) have contended that "basic"
emotions can be quantified because all humans
employ the same facial muscles when
expressing a particular emotion.


D-r Paul Ekman demonstrates a set
of facial expressions.

39. Ekman's research

Studies done by Ekman suggest that muscular
feedback from a facial expression characteristic of a
certain emotion results in the experience of that
Ekman's research on universally recognized facial
emotions has led to discussions on the existence and
enumeration of the fundamental emotions that can act
as basic building blocks of our entire emotional
repertoire. Based on such research up to seven
emotions have been proposed: anger, disgust, fear,
sadness, joy, shame, and guilt.

40. Affective events theory

This is a communication-based theory
developed by Howard M. Weiss and
Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks
at the causes, structures, and
experience (especially in work
contexts). This theory suggests that
emotions are influenced and caused
by events which in turn influence
attitudes and behaviors.

41. Affective events theory (continuation)

This theoretical frame also emphasizes time in
that human beings experience what they call
emotion episodes – a "series of emotional states
extended over time and organized around an
underlying theme."
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