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# Measuring Temperature

## 2.

• You probably think of temperature as a
number that tells you how hot or cold
something is
• This topic will get more into the scientific
picture of temperature
• One way to figure a rough temperature is just
to touch something
• Some nerve endings in the human body are
quite sensitive to temperature

## 3.

• Health care workers can determine patient
temperature by touching the forehead with
the back of their hand
• People who work with hot, glowing materials
can estimate temperature by the colour of the
light the materials give off
• Astronomers can do the same with stars based
on the colour of light they give off

## 4. Thermometers

• Thermometers are mechanical or electrical
devices for measuring temperature
• One of the earliest thermometers was invented
around 1600 by Galileo
• More portable liquid
around 1700 but they were
still lacking accuracy
(scary, grumpy looking guy)

## 5. Temperature Scales

• Early thermometers were lacking scales –
markings with numbers to indicate precise
temperature
• Modern thermometers have gradations or
evenly spaced lines that allow you to read
exact temperatures

## 6. Temperature Scales (cont.)

• The temperature scale commonly used in Canada
and many other countries is called the Celsius
scale
• This was developed by Anders Celsius (17011744) – he used the degree as a unit of
temperature
• He based his standards for comparison on the
properties of water
• He assigned zero degrees to the temperature at
which ice melts at sea level

## 7. Temperature Scales (cont.)

• He assigned one hundred degrees to the
temperature at which liquid water boils at sea level
• He then spaced the region
in between into 100 evenly
spaced units or degrees
• To calibrate thermometers
you must do it at sea level
with very pure water

## 8. What affects properties of H20

• Salt water freezes above zero degrees
• Pressure also affects freezing and boiling of
water
• Because of high altitude in Alberta, water will
actually boil several degrees less than 100oC
• At the top of Mount Everest, water would
boil at only 69oC!!!!!!!

## 9. Stinkin’ COLD

• Scientists needed a temperature scale that started at
the coldest possible temperature or “absolute zero”
• The new temperature scale was named the Kelvin
scale – in honour of William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)
1824-1907
• No one has cooled anything to
absolute zero but it is predicted
to be around -273.15oC
Measured in kelvins 0oC=273.15K
(what’s with the beards??)

## 10. Temperature Depends on Particle Movement!

• All matter is made up of atoms that are
moving…even solid objects have atoms that
are vibrating.
• The motion from the atoms gives the object
energy.

## 11. The Kinetic Theory of Matter

• All of the particles that make up matter are constantly
in motion
• Solid= vibrating atoms
• Liquid= flowing atoms
• Gas= move freely
• Plasma=
move incredibly
fast and freely
www.nasa.gov

## 12. Temperature

•The Measure of the
average kinetic energy
of all the particles in
the object
•The atoms mass and
speed determine the
temperature of the
object
cse.ssl.berkeley.edu

## 13. Temperature

• Temperature is measured
in units called degrees
(oC,F,K)
• Fahrenheit:
Water freezes 32oF and
boils at 212oF
• Celsius:
Water freezes at 0oC and
boils at 100oC
www.germes-online.com

## 14. How does a Thermometer Work?

The
thermometer
can
measure
temperature because the substance of the
liquid inside always expands (increases) or
contracts (decreases) by a certain amount due
to a change in temperature.

## 15. Energy Flows from Warmer to Cooler Objects

• Heat: the flow of energy from an object at a
higher temperature to an object at a lower
temperature.
• Thermal Energy: total random kinetic energy
of particles in an object.

## 16. Measuring Heat

• Heat is measured by the units of calorie and
joule (J).
• calorie: The amount of energy needed to raise
the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1oC
• 1 calorie= 4.18 J

## 17. Some substances change temperature more easily than others.

• Specific Heat: the
amount of energy
required to raise the
temperature of 1 gram
of a substance by 1oC
chesapeake.towson.edu

## 18. The Transfer of Energy as Heat.

• Energy moves heat in three ways
• Conduction
• Convection

## 19. Conduction

• The process that moves energy from one object
to another when they are touching physically.
• Conductors: materials that transfer energy easily.
• Insulators: materials that do not transfer energy
easily.
• Examples: hot cup of cocoa transfers heat
energy to cold hands

## 20. Convection

• The process that transfers
energy by the movement of
large numbers of particles in
the same direction within a
liquid or gas.
• Cycle in Nature
• Boiling water and heating a
room
www.physics.arizona.edu

## 21. Convection in Nature

Cooler denser air sinks and flows
under the warmer air (less dense)
to push the warmer air upward
As the warmer air rises it cools and
becomes more dense
This cooling and movement of
warmer air upward creates the
cycle of convection
npg2.com

• The energy that
travels by
electromagnetic
waves (visible light,
microwaves,
and
infrared light)
sun strikes the
and transfers energy
www.chemheritage.org

## 23.

Conduction
Convection
•Energy transferred •Occurs in gases
by direct contact
and liquids
•Energy flows
directly from
warmer to cooler
objects
•Energy transferred by
electromagnetic waves
(visible light,
•Movement of large microwaves, infrared)
number of particles
in same direction
energy
•Cycle occurs while
•Continues until
temperature
object temperatures differences exist
are equal
•Can transfer energy
through empty space

## 24. Converting Between Scales

Celsius and Fahrenheit
oC = 5/9 *(oF – 32)
oF= (9/5*Co)+ 32
Celsius and Kelvin
K= oC + 273
oC = K-273