How two friends changed the internet
HOW TWO FRIENDS
Today, things are different — and quicker. How tall is a giraffe? Google it. What's the
distance between London and Manchester? Google it.
With billions of daily searches, Google has made people's lives a lot easier. And it all
began with two friends, and a search engine they called "BackRub.” Larry Page and
Sergey Brin met at Stanford University, California, in 1995. As their friendship grew, they
started thinking of ways to find data on the internet.
Search engines already existed back then — "Archie," created in 1990, is often credited
with being the first. While other search engines presented data based on how often a
search phrase was used, Page and Brin wanted to create one that would present it in
order of importance and relevance.
them — to determine how important a website was. The name was changed to "Google" in 1997, based on the word "googol" — a
mathematical word for the number 1 followed by 100 zeros. The name represented the large number of results the search engine could
In 1998, Page and Brin incorporated the company, after receiving funding from investors, one of whom was Amazon founder Jeff Bezos.
They first operated out of a garage, but they quickly outgrew the space, eventually settling in what is now their headquarters in Mountain
From there, they continued to grow. By 2004, the search engine had 200 million searches a day. The company started offering new
services, like Gmail in 2004, Google Maps in 2005, and Google Chrome in 2008. Google also acquired other businesses, like YouTube.
In 2015, after some restructuring, the parent company Alphabet Inc. was created, with Google as its largest subsidiary. Today, Alphabet
Inc. is among the world's most valuable companies, worth nearly $1.6 trillion.
And if you don't believe that, google it.
Credit [Verb] to believe or say that a particular person or thing is responsible for something.
Alexander Fleming is credited with discovering the antibiotic properties of penicillin.
Relevance [Noun] the quality or state of being appropriate or connected to a particular subject, situation, time, etc.
Your concern doesn't have any relevance to the matter at hand.
Incorporate [Verb] to make a company, city, etc. into a legal corporation.
Amazon was incorporated by Jeff Bezos in 1994, starting as an online marketplace for books.
Acquire [Verb] to buy or get something.
The Walt Disney Company acquired the rights to the Star Wars franchise in 2012.
Restructure [Verb] to change the way something is organized.
The moment Elon Musk took over Twitter, he began restructuring the entire company.
Subsidiary [Noun] a company that is owned or controlled by a larger company.
Google is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.
2. Do you remember the first time
you used Google? What did you
make of it then?
3. Have you used any search
engines other than Google? How
did you find them?
4. Is there anything about Google
that you find annoying?
5. Do you think Google will remain
the most popular search engine
for the foreseeable future?
Thank goodness for prepositions. Imagine not knowing where the danger lay . . .
Prepositions tell us where or when something is in relation to something else. When monsters are approaching, it’s good to
have these special words to tell us where those monsters are. Are they behind us or in front of us? Will they be arriving in
three seconds or at midnight?
Prepositions often tell us where one noun is in relation to another (e.g., “The coffee is on the table beside you”). But they
can also indicate more abstract ideas, such as purpose or contrast (e.g., “We went for a walk despite the rain”).
Prepositions indicate direction, time,
location, and spatial relationships, as well
as other abstract types of relationships.
Direction: Look to the left and you’ll see
Time: We’ve been working since this
Location: We saw a movie at the theatre.
Space: The dog hid under the table.
formula for determining which
preposition to use with a
particular combination of words.
The best way to learn which
prepositions go with which words
is to read as much high-quality
writing as you can and pay
attention to which combinations
1.in front of
2.as far as
3.in answer to
4.on behalf of
5.in agreement with
6.by means of
7.with reference to
8.in order to
9.in compensation for
10.with compliments of
a. If Steven gets out, …..
1. he would be in the school team.
b. If Jack was at school today, …..
2. he will get fat.
c. If Steven eats so many sweets, …..
3. it would not smell in our room.
d. If Jack washed his feet, …..
4. he would know about the history test.
e. If Steven didn't foul the other players so often, …..
5. his parents would buy him a new one.
f. If Jack read the newspaper regularly, …..
6. he can save more money.
g. If Steven didn't play the music too loud, …..
7. he could be better at social studies.
h. If Jack turns off the heating more often, …..
i. If Steven opens the windows, …..
8. the air in the room will be better.
j. If Jack rode his old bike more carefully, …..
9. his neighbour would not be angry with
10. he'll never take an umbrella with him
up." Albert Einstein
This is called "phubbing" — a mix of the words, "phone" and "snubbing." When a person is
"phubbing," they're using their phone to look at the internet, check messages, play games and so
on, instead of focusing on the conversation or spending time with the people they're with.
The term was first used back in 2012, when fewer people had smartphones. Fewer than half of
Americans had a smartphone back then, but it's believed that around 85% of Americans have a
smartphone now. And now that most people have smartphones, phubbing is a common problem.
Most people would agree that it's rude to be focused on your phone when you're spending time
with another person — the UK's top etiquette expert William Hanson thinks so, too. "Phubbing is
a no-no!" he says. "If you have arranged to go out with friends for a catch-up, focus on them and
not your friends on your phone."
others. Studies have found that phubbing can make people feel excluded and ostracized, and
those who "phub" are thought of as less polite and attentive.
And a 2023 study found that couples who "phubbed" more also reported less satisfaction in
their marriages. So, science has shown that phubbing is not good for us — but why do we do
it? It might be because we are feeling bored, anxious or stressed.
Or it might be because we are addicted to checking our phones, especially social media.
Whatever the reason may be, phubbing is bad for our relationships and can make us miss out
on real moments with the people around us. So, the next time you're spending time with a
friend or family member, try and keep your phone out of sight!
To talk behind someone's back
to do something without someone's knowledge
to talk about someone in secret
A snake in the grass
someone who pretends to be friendly but will do anything to get what they want
someone who seems harmless but plans to hurt us
A wolf in sheep's clothing
someone who seems harmless but plans to hurt us
someone who looks scary and is dangerous
To pull the wool over someone's eyes
to surprise someone
to trick someone
Could you lend me some money, please?
Some pupils can borrow books from their school.
Will you lend me your umbrella till tomorrow?
Should I lend him my football?
You may borrow my bike, but be careful.
Could I borrow your cup?
You can lend your book to Steve.
Why do students borrow so much money from their parents?
Peter won't lend his car to anyone.
Will your mother lend you some money?
As: He couldn’t concentrate on his studies, as he was feeling unwell.
As a result of: As a result of the traffic jam, they arrived late to the concert.
Considering: Considering that it was his first attempt, he performed remarkably well in the archery competition.
Due to: The match was cancelled due to heavy rain.
For: He apologized profusely, for he hadn’t meant to offend anyone.
Given that: Given that he had no experience, he was hesitant to take on the leadership role.
In light of: In light of the unstable snow conditions, the ski resort decided to close the mountain until they could be sure it was
In view of: In view of the circumstances, the project deadline was extended.
On account of: On account of his exceptional leadership skills, he was chosen as the team captain.
Owing to: When they received the promotion, their boss said that it was owing to their creative problem-solving.
Since: She couldn’t attend the party since she had a prior engagement.
Thanks to: Thanks to her dedication, the project was completed ahead of schedule.
YOURSELF/Issue 33 Love - part 1.pdf
HOMOPHONES ARE SOMETIMES CONFUSED WITH HOMONYMS AND HOMOGRAPHS.
A pair of homonyms
have the same:
bark (tree skin/dog
A pair of
A pair of
dove (kind of
2. “What ales/ails you, son/sun?” asked my mom over breakfast. “You/ewe don’t look
3. “Eye/I didn’t sleep because of you’re/your horrible dog,” I said before taking a bite/byte
4. “That dog loves to/too bark,” my sister Lucy said.
5. “Your/yore powers of perception are truly strong,” I said sarcastically.
6. “Don’t make the rest/wrest of us suffer just because you had a ruff/rough knight/night,”
mom chastized. “Everyone loves Wiley except/accept you.”
7. “I’m sorry,” I said. “I’m worried about today’s English test; there’s know/no weigh/way I
can do/due a good job on such little sleep!”
fast I almost forgot to close the door.
2. First period is English, so/sew I felt relieved to take the test at the start of the day.
3. But/butt when I sat at my desk, my stomach began to/two churn. I could here/hear the wind
blowing outside ominously.
4. I desperately kneaded/needed an A because I’m competing with my arch-rival Zachary
5. After Mr. Robinson passed/past out the tests, I took a deep breath and prepared for what I
was sure would/wood be/bee a whole/hole ordeal.
6. To my total delight, I knew/new every answer; our/are teacher taught/taut us well!
MEANINGS OF SOME OF
THE WORLD’S MOST
• Since the beginning of human civilization,
symbols have played a vital role. These
cultures used symbols as a way to express
themselves in various ways. The prehistoric
man carved his life experiences on cave
walls, not expecting we'd still be talking
about them today. Indeed, to this day, we
still use many of the symbols inherited from
the past. Be it in religion, political ideology,
or art, we still come across many of these
symbols in our day to day, often without
knowing their true meanings and origins.
In the '50s, the peace sign, as it is known
today, was designed by Gerald Holtom as
the logo for the British Campaign for
Nuclear Disarmament. It was later
adopted by anti-war and counterculture
activists in the '60s.
Widely recognized for its appropriation by
the Nazi Party and by neo-Nazis, the
swastika has a much different origin than
one might think. Meaning "good fortune"
and "well-being" in Sanskrit, the swastika
was originally a sacred symbol in
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Found in many cultures in the Mediterranean region, it is believed to be
a curse cast by a wicked glare, usually to an unaware victim. The
earliest known evidence of the evil eye can be traced back to ancient
Greece and Rome.
The basis of almost all Chinese
philosophy, the yin and yang symbol
represents perfect balance. Mostly used
in Taoism, it symbolizes two halves, who
combined make for complete wholeness.
A symbol of eternal life, energy, and
renewal, the tree of life may have originated
in Central Asia, and then was absorbed by
other cultures. It's portrayed in various
religions and philosophies, such as
Known as the "king of the jungle," the lion
traditionally symbolizes courage, nobility,
royalty, and strength. It also has JudeoChristian symbolism
• Please follow-up your lesson with more
• Take care and see you next time.
• Happy reading!!!