The ecological monitoring of soils condition. (Lesson 9)
University of Stavanger
“Joint Norwegian-Russian Master of Science
program in Geoecological monitoring and
rational use of natural resources in the
Northern oil and gas production regions”
2. Lesson 9The Ecological Monitoring of
are largely determined by the properties of depositing landsca
components - soil cover and vegetation.
which arises from the interaction of all other
the rocks, air, natural waters, vegetation,
microorganisms and animals.
deposited on the surface of the soil and
are absorbed by plants.
considered as an integral indicator of pollution
of natural-territorial complexes, giving an idea
of the quality life-supporting components - air
are sources of secondary pollution of air, surface
soils/substrates and their
toxicity is determined
by the chemical
composition of the soil
and the content of
of soils are included in the list
of the general characteristics of
the sanitarian parameter of
- Acid-alkaline conditions,
- Organic matter content
- and other properties of soil
which determine the mobility
of chemical elements and the
intensity of their involvement
in the biological cycle.
countries, diameters in μm
(Н. А. Качинский, 1958)
Name of the mechanical
The size of the mechanical
Name of soil
The content of physical clay (particles with d <0,01
in the soils of
in the soils of the
steppe type of soil
soil formation formation, as well as
(this is for
red and yellow soils
tundra soils too)
soil texture classifications
are defined by the United
States Department of
Silty clay loam
Sandy clay loam
Determining the soil
textures is often aided with
the use of a soil texture
14. The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils. pH is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the activity of hydronium ions (H+ or, more precisely, H3O+aq) in a solution.The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or
alkalinity in soils.
pH is defined as the negative logarithm
(base 10) of the activity of hydronium
ions (H+ or, more precisely, H3O+aq) in a
water, it normally ranges from -1 to 14, with 7 being
neutral. A pH below 7 is is acidic and above 7 is alkaline.
The pH value in soils - 2,5 to 12,5.
solution and sorbed to soil surfaces.
While pH is the measure of H+ in solution, Al3+ is
important in acid soils because between pH 4 and 6,
Al3+ reacts with water (H2O) forming AlOH2+, and
Al(OH)2+, releasing extra H+ ions. Every Al3+ ion can
create[ 3 H+ ions.
Many other processes contribute to the formation of
acid soils including rainfall, fertilizer use, plant root
activity and the weathering of primary and secondary
soil minerals. Acid soils can also be caused by
pollutants such as acid rain and mine spoilings.
If the pH is higher than 7.4, then the reaction of the
soil is alkaline, lower - acidic.
In this case, acidic soils are classified as follows:
very strongly acidic - pH is within <4.0,
strong acid - pH 4.1-4.5,
medium acid - pH 4.6-5.0,
slightly acid - pH 5.1- 6.0,
weakly alkaline soils have pH 7.5-8.5,
strongly alkaline soils 8.6-10.0,
sharply alkaline pH> 10.0
17. The United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, formerly Soil Conservation Service classifies soil pH ranges as followsDenomination
Very strongly acidic
Very strongly alkaline
18. Map of soil acidity (T. Hengl)
It can be divided into three general pools:
-living biomass of microorganisms,
-fresh and partially decomposed residues,
-and humus: the well-decomposed organic material.
humus: earth, ground) refers to the fraction
of soil organic matter that is amorphous and
without the cellular cake structure
characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or
Humus significantly influences the bulk
density of soil and contributes to moisture
and nutrient retention. Soil formation begins
with the weathering of humus.
black or dark brown color
and is organic due to an
accumulation of organic
carbon. The three major
horizons are: (A) surface
horizon, (B) illuvial
horizon (subsoil) and (C)
substratum. Some soils
have an organic horizon
(O) on the surface. Hard
bedrock, which is not soil,
uses the letter R.
Macroelements (Si, Na, Mg ctr.),
Microelements, trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd,
Ni, Cr, Hg, As, Sb, Co, Mn, Ba Sr, Mo, V
with organic molecules—carbon, nitrogen,
hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur—
take a variety of chemical forms and may
exist for long periods in the atmosphere, on
land, in water, or beneath Earth’s surface.
24. Thus, contamination results in:Changing the physical
characteristics of soils:
- change in texture,
- change in the total
saturation of the base
(pH shift, etc.)
- accumulation of
Water migration of pollutants and pollution of natural
The absorption of pollutants by living organisms and
their involvement in the biological cycle.
25. The methods of soils investigationMain soil horizons
at monitoring stations.
Description of soil
description of soil
horizons (color, soil
reaction with HCl, the
transition of the horizon
and other features )
27. The chemical composition of soils is the specific indicator of anthropogenic environmental pollution of terrestrial ecosystems
are carried out in accordance with applicable
standards (ГОСТ 17.1.5.02-80; ГОСТ 17.1.5.05-85;
ГОСТ 17.4.3.01-83; ГОСТ 17.4.4.02-84)
29. ГОСТ 17.4.4.02-84EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, REAGENTS
Shovels by ГОСТ 19596—74. Knives for soil by ГОСТ 23707—79. Knives from polyethylene or polystyrene. Soil
A refrigerator that maintains the temperature from 4 to 6 ° C. Refrigerators-bags.Laboratory balance for general
use by ГОСТ 24104—80 with a maximum load of 200 and 1000 g. Enameled cuvettes. Glass crystallizers.
Soil sieve with a mesh of 0.25; 0.5; 1; 3 mm by ГОСТ 3584—73.
Laboratory glass spirits by ГОСТ 10090—74.
Porcelain mortars and pestles by ГОСТ 9147—80.
Mortars and pistils of jasper, agate or fused corundum.
Vials or cans of glass wide-necked with ground glass stoppers with a capacity of 300, 500, 800, 1000 cm3.
Banks or boxes of food polyethylene or polystyrene. Metal spatulas by ГОСТ 19126—79.
Plastic spatulas by ГОСТ 19126—79.
Wrapping paper by ГОСТ 8273—75.
Tracing paper by ГОСТ 892—70.
Packages and film polyethylene.
Parchment by ГОСТ 2995—73.
Tampons cotton-gauze sterile.
Acid, hydrochloric acid by ГОСТ 3118—77, pure for analysis, a solution with a mass fraction of 3 and 10%.
Sodium hydroxide by ГОСТ -1328—77.
Rectified ethyl alcohol by ГОСТ 18300—72.
Technical formalin by ГОСТ 1625—75, The highest grade, a solution with a mass fraction of 3%.
Sodium chloride by ГОСТ 4233—77, Isotonic solution with a mass fraction of 0.85%.
from each genetic
the material is taken
from one place of the
horizon, or one layer of
the soil profile, typical
of this horizon, or layer.
31. Sample from two horizons: Peaty & humic horizon О /А0А1 (Ат) and mineral one В (Вg)Sample from two horizons: Peaty & humic
horizon О /А0А1 (Ат) and mineral one В (Вg)
32. A sample from each of the two layers О/Ат and T of organogenic soils
or by diagonal methods in such a way that each
sample represents a part of the soil, typical of
the genetic horizons or layers of this soil type.
Number of point samples
is determined according to
is not less than 1 kg (0.5
The possibility of
of samples is excluded by
stripping of soil profile
wall before sampling by a
polyethylene or plastic
are dried to air-dry state according to ГОСТ
5180-75 (without direct sunlight!)
Air-dried samples stored in cloth bags, in
cardboard boxes or in glass containers.
hydrocarbons, are placed in plastic bags,
tightly closed and in this form are transmitted
to the laboratory
According to Evaluation of the background (initial)
state of the environment of licensed area of oil&gas
fields, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District
YaNAO from 14.02.2013 N 56-P
(as amended on 11.26.2013) "On
surveillance of the environment
within the boundaries of the
licensed areas subsoil for the
purpose of oil and gas fields in
the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous
pH values ,
concentration of NO3 ̃, PO4 ̃,̃ SO4 ,̃ Cl¯
anionic surfactant synthetic
Total Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cr VI, Cd
Heavy metal (HМ*)
* - Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd, V, Mn, Ba, Cr, Hg
40. The regional geochemical background of soilThe rule of calculation of the regional geochemical
х + ,
х – average arithmetic, – standard deviation
High anomaly concentration
х + 2
х + 3
petroleum field, mg/kg
Horizon O/Aт, T
Содержание НУ мг/кг
Distribution of HC in soils of Zapadno-Jarojachinskoe petroleum
in soils of Zapadno-Jarojachinskoe petroleum field
проба 323 горизонт А
проба 327 горизонт А
проба 340 горизонт А
проба 323 горизонт В
проба 327 горизонт В
проба 341 горизонт А
Бенз/b/флуорантен + перилен
44. Total Coefficient of Soil Pollutionn
i 1 i. рф
where: Сi опр – value is determined by the
content of i-toxicant in the soil ;
Сi рф – value of regionally-background
content in the soil of i-toxicant .
45. The indexes of total pollution of landscape components are calculated. The estimation of environmental pollution degree is made.Category of soil pollution
Changes in health
Without any changes
the lowest morbidity
increase in the overall incidence
increase in overall morbidity, including
increase in overall morbidity, including
children, violation of reproductive
function of women, the increase of
Distribution of Soil Pollution
allowable degree of pollution,
weak level of pollution,
the average degree of pollution
47. Method of the main component of the factorial analysisIt is revealed 5 factors defining 85 % of all correlation
Hg68 Zn62 Cu53 HC40
It is interpreted as anthropogenous factor, caused by pollution as a
result of investigation and development oil-gas deposits of a tundra
48. Parity of natural and anthropogenic factors in the formation of the chemical compound of oil-gas deposits soils of Urengoj-tundra%
The factor of spreading rocks
Natural factors of soil formation
Anthropogenic factors of soil