Principles of Government
What is Government?
Purpose of Government
Forms of Government
Theories of Democratic Government
Origins of US Government
Категория: ПолитикаПолитика

Principles of government. Public policy

1. Principles of Government

2. What is Government?

• Government - the formal
and informal institutions,
people, and processes used
to create and conduct
public policy
• Public policy – the exercise
of government power in
doing those things
necessary to maintain
legitimate authority and
control over society

3. Purpose of Government

• Form a more perfect union
( strong union of states
while maintaining state
• Establish justice
(reasonable, fair laws)
• Insure domestic tranquility
(keep public order)
• Provide for the common
defense (national security)


• Promote the general
welfare (provide public
services and promote
• Secure the blessings of
liberty (promote
individual freedoms)


• Sound familiar?
• It should
• It comes from the

6. Forms of Government

• Anarchy
• Autocracy (rule by one)
– Absolute monarchy
– Constitutional monarchy
– Dictatorship
• Oligarchy (rule by few)
– Aristocracy (rule by elite)
– Theocracy (rule by religion)
• Democracy (rule by the people)
– Direct democracy (citizens meet
and decide issues)
– Representative democracy (citizens
choose officials who make


orange - parliamentary republics
green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament
yellow - presidential republics, semi-presidential system
blue - presidential republics, full presidential system
red - parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise
magenta - constitutional monarchies in which the monarch personally exercises power, often (but not
always) alongside a weak parliament
purple - absolute monarchies
brown - republics where the dominant role of a single party is codified in the constitution
beige - states where constitutional provisions for government have been suspended
grey - countries which do not fit any of the above systems

8. Theories of Democratic Government

• Theories about who has
power and influence
• Traditional democratic
theory: gov’t depends on
consent of the governed
(direct or representative)
• Pluralist theory: interest
groups compete for
power and influence
– Conflict may require
bargaining and


• Elite theory: small powerful
elite rules in its own interest
(business, military, etc)
• Bureaucratic theory:
structures and procedures
allow bureaucrats to hold the
real power
• Hyperpluralism: democracy
is a system of many groups
that have so much strength
they are often pulled in many
– Causes gridlock and

10. Origins of US Government

• Greeks & Romans:
– First democratic governments
• Magna Carta: (1215)
– First attempt to limit power of
British king
– Created by nobility
– Trial by jury, due process,
protection against taking life,
liberty or property
• Creation of Parliament:
– Began as advisory group to king
– As power of king became more
limited, they began making laws


• Petition of Right: (1628)
– Extended protections of Magna
Carta to commoners
– Also included:
• No tax without consent of
Parliament, declaring martial law
• No housing military in homes
• Trial by jury
• English Bill of Rights: (1689)
– Guaranteed free parliamentary
– Fair and speedy trial
– No excessive bail or cruel
– No suspending public laws


• Enlightenment Philosophers:
– Idea of a social contract (John
– Voluntary agreement between
the government and the
– People are born with natural
– Governments are created by man
– If the government becomes
abusive, people may change it
– Jefferson adopted these ideas in
the Declaration of
English     Русский Правила