The Armenian-Turkish war (1920)
The Armenian-Turkish war
The establishment of Soviet power in Armenia
The consequences
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The Armenian-Turkish war (1920)

1. The Armenian-Turkish war (1920)

Performed by: Ruzeva Mavlyudam
student of group 2G-6
International law,

2. The Armenian-Turkish war

The Armenian-Turkish war is a military conflict between the Republic of
Armenia and Turkey (September 24 - December 2, 1920).
The war ended with the defeat of the armed forces of the Republic of Armenia
and the signing of the Alexandropol Peace Treaty. At the talks on concluding
peace, the Armenian delegation was forced to declare its refusal to recognize the
previously signed Sevrian peace treaty and to cede Turkey to the territory of the
Kars region. In fact, however, the Armenian delegation lost its competence at the
time of the signing of the treaty, as the government of the Republic of Armenia
resigned, transferring power to the coalition government, which included
Armenian nationalists and Bolsheviks, and by that time entered the territory of

3. Prehistory

28 Jan 1920 in Constantinople, the newly elected chamber of
deputies, the majority of which were supporters of the
Kemalist movement, adopted a "Declaration of
independence of Turkey," better known as the Turkish
national Pact or national oath. Territorial issues in this
document were resolved as follows: the question of Arab
lands was put to a plebiscite of their inhabitants, and the land
inhabited by the representatives of the Turkish nation, of
course had to remain part of Turkey. Under the territory
inhabited by the Turkish nation, understood all the territory
of modern Turkish Republic, with the exception of Western
Thrace, and districts of Kars, Ardahan and Batum, where it
was proposed to hold a referendum on the nationality of
these territories

4. Fighting

The Armenian and Turkish sources indicate different dates the beginning of the Armenian-Turkish war.
The reason for the discrepancy is that Turkey officially the war Armenia has not been announced, and
Armenia declared war only on 24 September[7]; to the same hand, as mentioned above, were in a state of
war, in June 1920, when they started a border conflict[6].
The Armenian leadership clearly underestimated the military and ideological power of the Turkish
nationalists and at the same time overestimated their own resources and strength, as well as potential
support from the West[7]. In the first half of September, the Turkish forces took Olty (Oltu) and Penac.
In the same period, Armenian troops took control of the territory Almalinskogo County district Culpa.
September 20 began a large-scale military action. September 22, Armenian troops attacked the positions
of Turkish troops near the village of Bardos (Bardes). Having encountered fierce resistance of the
Turkish troops and suffered considerable losses, September 24, Armenian troops were forced
to retreat to the town Sarikamis. The Turkish army on 28 September went to the counter and, having a
considerable superiority of forces on the main directions of the offensive, was able in a few days to break
the resistance of Armenian troops to take sarıkamış, Kağızman (September 29), Martinek (September
30), went to Igdir. The advancing Turkish troops devastated the districts occupied and destroyed the
civilian Armenian population who failed or did not want to flee. At the same time, it was reported that
some Armenian units began ethnic cleansing on the territory of the Kars oblast and the Erivan province.
After a few days the Turkish offensive was suspended until 28 October, the battles were fought by
roughly the same line.


6. Fighting

During the two-week lull at the Turkish-Armenian front, Georgian troops tried to occupy
southern Ardalinskoe County, representing the subject of a territorial dispute between Georgia
and Armenia. These actions caused a diplomatic incident, especially given the fact that they
coincided with the negotiations in Tbilisi on the conclusion of the Armenian-Georgian Union
for the joint confrontation of the Soviet and Turkish expansion. The negotiations ended in
failure. Later, Georgian troops left one of the busy areas (near the okama) and retain the area
of lake Childir that 13 October was declared as belonging to Georgia. In connection with the
resumption of hostilities at the Turkish-Armenian front Armenia are unable to prevent it.
October 13, Armenian armed forces attempted a counter-offensive from Kars, which,
however, were not successful. After this failure, wide sizes made the desertion from the ranks
of the Armenian army. This contributed to spreading the rumors about the Turkish-Soviet
Union and the perceived lack of political support. In early October, Armenia appealed to the
governments of Britain, France, Italy and other allied powers with a request for assistance,
diplomatic pressure on Turkey, the great powers were preoccupied with their own problems,
and the only state that responded was in Greece, have stepped up military operations against
the Kemalists in the West of Asia Minor. This, however, was not enough to force Turkey to
ease the pressure on Armenian forces. The US promised aid to Armenia and has not had


8. The establishment of Soviet power in Armenia

29 Nov 1920, a group of Armenian Bolsheviks with the Soviet 11th army and the troops
of Soviet Azerbaijan was included in the city of Ijevan and proclaimed the establishment
of the Revolutionary Committee, the uprising against dashnagskogo government and the
establishment of Soviet power in Armenia.
November 30 the same year, the Soviet Plenipotentiary Boris Legran issued an ultimatum
demanding the entry of Armenia into the Soviet sphere, after which on 2 December
between him and the representatives of the government of Armenia (Draw and Tertiana)
signed an agreement according to which Armenia was proclaimed an independent
socialist Republic; formed the provisional military-revolutionary Committee consisting of
5 members from the Communist party and leftist Dashnaks and 2 members of the ARF,
in agreement with the Communists; Moscow recognized Armenia: Erivan governorate,
part of the Kars region, Zangazur district and part of Kazakh district; officers of the
Armenian army and the members of the Dashnaktsutyun party should not be subjected to
any reprisals. November 4 at Erivan joined the Red army and on 6 November there
arrived the revolutionary Committee refused to recognize the signed with the Dashnaks
agreement, after which the clashes broke out.


10. The consequences

In fact, the fate of the Turkish-Armenian border
was settled in February-March 1921 at a
conference in Moscow. On 16 March signed the
Treaty of Moscow (1921) left Kars and Ardahan
Turkey. Was clearly marked the boundaries of
Armenia, a former Nakhichevan uyezd was
transferred to Azerbaijan SSR[13], the former
Zangezur County was transferred to Armenia,
discussed the withdrawal of Turkish troops from
Alexandropol, to be completed by mid-may.
Technically, the new terms were issued Carskim
Treaty, signed on 13 October 1921 the
Transcaucasian governments with Turkey, which
the current Republic of Armenia does not
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