Long-Term & Short-Term Memory
1. Long-Term & Short-Term MemoryAkash Singhal (07005016)
Ankush Jain (07005018)
Yashoteja M Prabhu (07005023)
Prashant Sachdeva (07D05009)
“… each of us remembers and forgets in a pattern
whose labyrinthing windings are an identification
mark no less distinctive than a fingerprint”
(American Pastoral, Philip Roth)
Memory : Storage of information for later retrieval
Human Memory Processes -> Strong Research Area in
Most accepted model of Memory divides the memory
into three major parts:
5. Types of MemoryTYPES OF MEMORY
Retain impressions of sensory information
Even after original stimulus ceases
Short Term Memory
Capacity for holding a small amount of information
Readily available for a short period of time
Long Term Memory
Memory that can last as little as a few days or as long as
6. Atkinson and Shiffrin ModelATKINSON AND SHIFFRIN MODEL
•George Sperling (1960)
•Partial Report Paradigm
Miller’s Magic Number
Intact ability to retain small amounts of information over
short time scales
Ability to form longer-term memories dramatically impaired
Impairs memory for the 3 to 5 most recently learned words of
a list while leaving recall for words from earlier in the list
Semantic similarity of the words
Affects only memory for earlier list words, not the last few
Short term recall Rehearsal
Long-term recall Semantic similarity
Tarnow’s work in 2005
The recall probability vs. latency curve is a straight line
from 6 to 600 seconds, with the probability of failure to
recall only saturating after 600 seconds .
Two different memory stores => Discontinuity in this
curve. Contradicts LTM-STM model.
Detailed pattern of recall errors very similar for recall
immediately after learning and recall after 24 hours.
Not expected from Atkinson and Shiffrin model
Art Recall/Recognition Experiments of Rubin, Hinton and Wentzel.
10. Short Term MemorySHORT TERM MEMORY
The longest list of items that a person can repeat back
immediately after presentation in correct order on 50% of
Miller observed this span to be approx 7 (Miller’s Magic
Number) for adults
Memory span not limited in terms of bits but rather in
terms of chunks
The largest meaningful unit in the presented material that
the person recognizes
Eg. Numbers like 1947, 1857 can be associated with important
11. Working MemoryWORKING MEMORY
== STM ??
12. Long-Term MemoryLONG-TERM MEMORY
Long term memory encodes information semantically
for storage, as researched by Baddeley
However, memory also encodes by sound for storage
“Tip of the tongue" state
Role of Sleep in Long-Term Memory
Tarnow's theory, long term memories stored in dream
Electrical excitations of cortex give rise to experiences
similar to dreams
13. Classification of LTMCLASSIFICATION OF LTM
Declarative v/s Procedural:
Consists of Episodic memory & Semantic memory
Refers to the use of objects or movements of the body
Prospective v/s Retrospective
14. Biological BasisBIOLOGICAL BASIS
Cerebral cortex receives nerve messages from eyes,
ears, and touch sensors.
The Prefrontal Cortex--Site of Working Memory .
Reflexive Long Term memory relies on the cerebellum
Declarative Long Term memory depend on the
hippocampus and temporal lobes.
Long Term Potentiation: STM->LTM is thought to be
encoded by modification of synaptic strength.
15. Biological BasisBIOLOGICAL BASIS
LEARNING AND MEMORY. The hippocampus, parahippocampal
region, and areas of the cerebral cortex (including prefrontal
cortex) compose a system that supports declarative, or cognitive,
memory. Different forms of nondeclarative, or behavioral, memory
are supported by the amygdala, striatum, and cerebellum.
NEURON. A neuron transmits electrical signals along its
axon.Neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules on the
surfaces of adjacent neurons. The point of contact is known
as the synapse.
16. MEMORY AND A.I.
17. Memory and A.I. – IssuesMEMORY AND A.I. – ISSUES
Knowledge of the machine increases over time,
slowing down its processing capability.
How does the machine remember the past events
along with their context ?
How to use past events to decide what to perceive from
Continuously modifying the “beliefs” on the basis of
Knowledge is the information about a domain that is
used for solving problems in that domain.
A knowledge-based system is a system that uses
knowledge about a domain to act or to solve problems.
Knowledge tends to mean general information that is
taken to be true.
Belief tends to mean information that can be revised
based on new information.
19. Increasing set of beliefsINCREASING SET OF BELIEFS
The point of view is therefore emulationist and not
The idea behind it is to build machines that do not
necessarily simulate and reproduce the behaviour of
the human mind, but are simply able to emulate it
selectively, as the final result of several operations.
Things only with the same context should be present
in the working memory.
20. Remembering past eventsREMEMBERING PAST EVENTS
What is remembering?
How does the machine remember the past?
Clancey(1997) writes that what is remembered
depends upon the context, or better, what is
experienced depends on the context.
For humans its natural...
21. Future decisionsFUTURE DECISIONS
Storing is one thing and being able to retrieve is
another. Does it know what it knows?
Usually, beliefs are overridden and machines forget
what they did in the past.
How do machines remember what is done in the past,
if the work of the machine the next day is similar to
the day before ?
How can the remembered past influence current
22. Memory in A.I.MEMORY IN A.I.
Long Short Term Memory (RNN) :
A type of Artificial Neural Network.
Possesses learning capability,
like any other neural network.
Contains a simple linear unit
with a single self-recurrent
connection which preserves
the state of neuron.
23. Memory as Art !MEMORY AS ART !
Subject of interest from Historic times.
Memory not a static entity. It can be honed
Mnemotechnics: Used to organize memory
impressions, improve recall, and assist in the
combination of ideas.
Techniques involve Architectural Association
(Method of Loci), Graphical Mnemonic, Textual
24. Improving MemoryIMPROVING MEMORY
From a Student’s perspective:
Rephrase and explain.
Be emotionally involved.
Schedule and read in chunks.
Use visual aids/word associations.
Cite ^ Davelaar, E. J., Goshen-Gottstein, Y., A., A., Haarmann, H. J., & Usher, M. (2005): The demise of
short-term memory revisited: empirical and computational investigation of recency effects.
Psychological Review, 112, pp. 3–42.
Tarnow, Eugen (2005): The Short Term Memory Structure In State-Of-The Art Recall/Recognition
Experiments of Rubin, Hinton and Wentzel.
Cite: ^ Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long-term
memory for word sequences. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 302-309.
Cite : Tarnow, E. (2003). "How Dreams And Memory May Be Related". Neuro-Psychoanalysis 5 (2):