Ecological problem of Kazakhstan.
There is a very vulnerable environment .Territory of country consist of steeps and valleys . In fact almost on the whole
For 40.
In Kazakhstan, there are unique inland seas and lakes, such as the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Zaisan, Alakol. In the
Every year in the surface waters of the Republic of dumped more than 200 million. M3 of contaminated wastewater.
Environmental risk assessment of public health due to anthropogenic air pollution Petropavlovsk
Категория: ЭкологияЭкология

Ecological problems of Kazakhstan

1. Ecological problem of Kazakhstan.

2. There is a very vulnerable environment .Territory of country consist of steeps and valleys . In fact almost on the whole

territory of the country
destructed natural capability of provision future of ecological
and social problems


► Extensive
development of agricultural industry left
a trace as misery of landscape .More than 60% of
the territory are prone to the cruelest
desertification , that lead to the frutality and as a
result - sequence , to reduction of productivity of
livestock and crop .

4. For 40.

5. In Kazakhstan, there are unique inland seas and lakes, such as the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Zaisan, Alakol. In the

eyes of a generation almost twice reduced
area Aral Sea.
Intensive and irrational
development of irrigated
agriculture, as well as the
regulation of runoff in arid
climatic conditions has led to a
shortage of water in the basins
of small and large rivers of the
southern region, such as the Ili,
Syrdarya and others.


similar fate awaits the lake Balkhash. When the
needs of the republic in the water 100 km3
existing supply is 34.6 km3. By water supply per
capita Kazakhstan occupies the last place
amongst CIS countries.

7. Every year in the surface waters of the Republic of dumped more than 200 million. M3 of contaminated wastewater.

More than 3 thousand. Hotbeds of pollution of underground
water, an area of from a few to hundreds of square


Environmental disaster threatens to
Aktau and the Caspian Sea. The
factories of the industrial giant
Caspian Mining and Metallurgical
Combine (PGMK) dumped sewage
into the basin located just a few
kilometers from the city of Aktau,
where the artificial lake was formed
Koshkar-Ata. These factories mainly
engaged in uranium enrichment.
Over time, the pond Koshkar Ata
accumulated almost all the
elements of the periodic table.
Including radioactive and toxic.
Lake Koshkar-Ata and the Caspian
Sea separates the narrow coastal
strip, up to 8 km, so there was a
danger of pollution of the Caspian
Sea waters tailing Koshkar-Ata.


But except toxic and radioactive substances,
groundwater, there is another problem with
the tailings Koshkar-Ata. At the moment, the
lake dries up, because the former PGMK idle
factories and shed water. On the shores of
the lake dried, forms toxic dust, which the
wind carries for the district.? Before
environmentalists Mangistau faces a difficult
problem. If you maintain the previous level in
the lake water, it can happen dumping of
toxic waste into the Caspian Sea. If the lake
to dry up, the dust will be infected all the
lands and pastures around the village of
Aktau and Akshukur.


Most businesses processing and
energy complexes have
imperfect technology, morally
and physically worn out fixed
assets, which increases the
amount of harmful emissions.
The atmosphere in the early
90s reported annually about 6
million. Tons of pollution (50%
- combined heat and power,
20% -Black metallurgy, 13% non-ferrous metals, 4% chemicals and petrochemicals).
Most areas of high air pollution
coincide with places of
concentrated habitation. In
Karaganda and Pavlodar oblasts
per inhabitant in 1993 it
accounted for 10.5 and 7.7
tonnes of harmful emissions


As a result of the mining and metallurgical complex in Kazakhstan It
has accumulated more than 20 billion tons of industrial waste
in annual revenue of about 1 billion. tons, including 230 million
tons of radioactive. They are concentrated mainly in Karaganda 29,4%, East Kazakhstan - 25,7%, Kostanai - 17% and Pavlodar 14.6% regions. Heavy metals and petroleum contaminated land as
Kyzylorda, Atyrau and West Kazakhstan regions. Here, the volume of
abandoned and dumped drill cuttings, oil contaminated water and lowlevel, the area of disturbed land is difficult to assess.


Oil and gas industry ranks first among industries in terms of
investment. Despite this, in the main areas of oil and gas production
and oil refining - Atyrau and Mangistau regions - work is carried out
with the use of backward technology, outdated equipment, which
leads to accidents and oil leaks. Resulting in the total area of oil
pollution in West Kazakhstan is 194 thousand. ha, and the
volume of spilled oil - more than 5 million. m.


The practice of burning associated
gas in flares also inflicts
significant ecological and
economic damage. The increased
heat background and oxidation of
components of the environment
around the combustion of gas fields
have a negative impact on soil,
vegetation, animal world adjoining to
oil complexes areas, making its
"contribution" to the increase in
greenhouse effekta.Bezvozvratnye
gas losses of more than 740
million. m3 per year. There was a
dependency of increased morbidity of
the population in the zone of the
Tengiz oil field (more than 6 times
higher than regional indices) on air
pollution of sulfur dioxide and


As a result of increase in sea
level were flooded, more than
200 wells and oilfields,
including the largest Kalamkas Karazhanbas and
that is a threat not only to
biological diversity (in the
Caspian Sea for 90% of world
reserves of sturgeon, a large
number of bird species,
endemic - the Caspian seal ),
but the entire ecosystem of
the Caspian Sea. Over the
past 10 years the
commercial fish catch has
decreased 10 times.


The huge territory of
Kazakhstan suffered from the
activities of military ranges and
launches of space technology.
During the period between
1949 and 1991 at the
Semipalatinsk nuclear test site
was conducted 470 nuclear
explosions. It is not possible to
accurately estimate the
number of deaths; the amount
of half a million people
On the territory of the
former Semipalatinsk
nuclear test site of about 2
million. Ha of agricultural
land subject to radioactive



Ulba plant accumulated about 100 thousand. Tons of waste contaminated with
uranium and thorium, and waste storage facility located in the city of UstKamenogorsk. In the republic there are only three burial ground for nuclear
waste, and all of them are located in the aquifer. Uranium mining was carried
100 тыс.district
without land reclamation,
in 1990-1991.
in Moyinkum
were exported 97 ураном
of radioactive
rocks, just as
хранилище отходов находится в городской черте Устьthere
had accumulatedВupреспублике
to 3 million. tonnes
of contaminated
всего три
the seriousness
of the
problem отходов,
of radioactive
has led to the
и contamination
все они
that one of the firstвlaws
of the sovereign
the decree руды
of 30
в 1990-1991
1991 on the без
of the tests at земли,
the Semipalatinsk
гг. в Мойынкумский район Жамбылской области было
вывезено 97 тыс. тонн радиоактивных пород, всего же
здесь накопилось до 3 млн. тонн загрязненных отходов.
Именно серьезность проблемы радиационного
загрязнения привела к тому, что одним из первых законов
суверенного Казахстана стал Указ от 30 августа 1991 г. о
запрещении испытаний на Семипалатинском полигоне.



Intensive pollution of air, water and soil, degradation of
flora and fauna, the depletion of natural resources have led
to the destruction of ecosystems, desertification, and
considerable losses of biological and landscape diversity,
increased morbidity and mortality. The consequence of
these changes is to reduce the quality of life and
unsustainable development of the country. At the same
time remain the lowest among the countries of Eurasia
public expenditure on environmental protection. They
make up less than 0.5 dollars. US per year per person.

20. Environmental risk assessment of public health due to anthropogenic air pollution Petropavlovsk

Over the decades, and in the cities of RMS, a high level of
morbidity and mortality due to cancer pathologies that
rightfully considered a major environmental problem in the
region. For one of the main causes of the observed trends
include air pollution of industrial cities due to emissions
from many industrial enterprises and motor transport a
significant amount of solid and gaseous toxic substances as
the main habitat-forming component of the urban


► The
greatest contribution to the
environmental risk of the amount of
suspended particles make two of the four
companies: LLC "Access Energo
Petropavlovsk CHP-2" and LLP "plant of
small engines." The results show that
carcinogens emitted by enterprises of our
city, do not have a direct negative impact so
as to cause the recorded high incidence in
the city


► On
the other hand, the population is negatively
affected continuously releases into the atmosphere
of suspended substances, which are known to be
more active adsorbents for finely dispersed toxic
and carcinogenic substances. The level of
population risk of additional deaths from exposure
to particulate matter in the city of Petropavlovsk
so high that it is possibly the cause of the
deterioration of the health of all age groups and
abnormal disease (including cancer) population.
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