2. The Germanic languages branch Indo-European family. Distributed on the territory of several countries of Western Europe (UK,Germany,
North. America (USA,
Canada), southern Africa
(South Africa, Namibia),
Asia (India), Australia,
New Zealand. The total
number of speakers as
native languages —
about 550 million
3. HISTORY■ The history of the development of the
Germanic languages are traditionally
divided into 3 periods:
ancient (from the appearance of writing to
the XI century) — the establishment of
intermediate (XII—XV century) — the
development of writing in the Germanic
languages and the extension of their
new (from the XVI century to the present)
— the formation and normalization of the
4. WRITING■ The most ancient monuments of
German literature made runes —
senior (VIII—IX centuries), Junior
(IX—XII centuries), punctured (XI—
XIII centuries), in Gothic language.
Gothic — letter (IV century). Latin
letter appears together with the
introduction of Christianity in
England since the seventh century,
Germany, VIII century, in the
Scandinavian countries since the
end of the XI century (Iceland,
Norway) and the XIII century
(Sweden, Denmark). Used AngloSaxon and Carolingian minuscule
with the addition of a number of
symbols for the transmission of
sounds not found in Latin.
6. LITERATURE■ Admoni V. G., Yartsev V. N. Historical and typological morphology of the Germanic languages: the Nominal
forms of the verb. The category of adverbs. Monoplegia. — M.: Nauka, 1978. — 178 p.
Berkov V. P. Modern Germanic languages. — M.: Astrel—AST, 2001.
Bubrich D. About the Finnish language traces of Teutonic — Chud. Language and literature. I. — L., 1926.
[About the Finnish elements in the Germanic languages].
Zhirmunskii V. M. Introduction to comparative-historical study of the Germanic languages. — M.—L., 1964.
Historical and typological morphology of the Germanic languages: a Category of the verb. / Under the
editorship of M. M. Hohman, E. A. makaeva, V. N. The Yartsevo. — M.: Nauka, 1977. — 296 p.
Historical and typological morphology of the Germanic languages: Phonomorphological. Paradigmatica.
Category name. / Under the editorship of M. M. Guhman. — M.: Nauka, 1977. — 360 p.
Kuzmenko Yu. K. Phonological evolution of the Germanic languages. — L.: Nauka, 1991. — 284 p.
Meye A. the Main features of the Germanic languages. / Per. FR. — M., 1952.
Prokos E. Comparative grammar of the Germanic languages / Ed. from English. — M., 1954.
Sizova I. A. Germanic languages. // Linguistic encyclopedic dictionary. — M., 1990.
Soloveva, L. N. The ancient Germanic tribes and their languages
Comparative grammar of the Germanic languages. — T. 1-4. — M., 1962-1966.
Toporov, T. V. Germanic languages. // Germanic and Celtic languages. Languages of the world. — Moscow:
Grundriss der germanischen Philologie. / hrsg. von H. Paul. Bde I, II. — 1907.
Hirt H. Handbuch des Urgermanischen. — Tl. 1-3. — Hdlb., 1931-1934.
C. J. Hutterer, Die germanischen Sprachen. — Bdpst., 1973.
R. E. Keller, The German language. — L.—Boston, 1975.
W. Streitberg Urgermanische Grammatik. — Hdlb., 1900.
7. Among Indo-European languages■ Distinctive features of the Germanic languages, and distinguishes them from other
dynamic accent on the first (root) syllable,
reduction of unstressed syllables,
assimilative vowel variation,
the movement of German consonants
the widespread use of ablaut as Phono-morphologically funds
the formation of the weak preterit with the help of the dental suffix
2 declension of adjectives: strong and weak.