Metaphors. History of metaphors
Tleubekova Gaukhar FLK 411
The idea of metaphor can be traced back to
Aristotle who, in his “Poetics” (around 335 BC), defines
“metaphor” as follows: “Metaphor is the application of
a strange term either transferred from the genus and
applied to the species or from the species and applied
to the genus, or from one species to another or else by
analogy.” For the sake of clarity and comprehension it
might additionally be useful to quote the following two
alternative translations: as Halliwell puts it in his
translation: “Metaphor is the application of a word
that belongs to another thing: either from genus to
species, species to genus, species to species, or by
A metaphor is an analogy between two objects or ideas; the analogy is
conveyed by the use of a metaphorical word in place of some other word.
From the next definition:
Metaphor roughly means “to transfer”. They transfer meaning by using a
term to describe something else .
From English Collins Dictionary:
A metaphor is an imaginative way of describing something by referring to
something else which is the same in a particular way.
That lends weight to the argument.(That makes the argument
They stood alone, frozen statues on the plain.(They stood
alone, keeping unmoved)
The ball happily danced into the net.(The goal was scored.)
I was lost in thought. (I was in deep thought.)
She flew at him. (She was angry with him.)
He was rattled. (He was terrified.)
New era business is a whole different ball game.(New era
business is a whole different situation.)
We were drinking the white.(We were drinking coffee with
milk in it.)
That is worth less than a dead didgeridoo.(That is
We faced a scallywag of tasks.(We faced hard
Let me compare thee to an artic day, sharp and
bright, forever light...(You are wonderful.)
It's been a purple dinosaur of a day.(It is a stupid
moment of a day.)
I'll chew on it. (I’ll think about it.)
Her thoughts were on the wing. (She is thinking
Fabulous was something worthy of fable. Like many
other superlatives, it has lost its original edge and
now just means 'good'. (Fabulous has lost its original
meaning,now it just means 'good ‘.)
Roasting today! (It’s so hot today!)
I am the dog end of every day.
An absolute metaphor is one where there is absolutely no
connection between the subject and the metaphor.
Let me compare thee to an artic day, sharp and bright,
forever light... (You are wonderful.)
It's been a purple dinosaur of a day. (It is a stupid moment of
An active metaphor is one which is relatively new and hence
is not necessarily apparent to all listeners, although if the
metaphor is well-selected, it will be easy enough to
That lends weight to the argument. -That make the
argument more important
They stood alone, frozen statues on the plain. -They stood
alone, keeping unmoved
The ball happily danced into the net. -The goal was
A complex metaphor happens where a simple metaphor is
base on a secondary metaphoric element.
Money was so called because it was first minted at the temple
The origin of 'the whole nine yards' seems unknown, even to an
expert word website.
A dead metaphor occurs where the once-evocative
transferred image is no longer effective or even understood,
perhaps being lost in time.
New era business is a whole different ball game.
Thanks -- that's just the ticket, old chap. I'm over the
moon about it.
A dying metaphor is one which has become so over-used,
it is considered unfashionable or lacking in eloquence to
All the world's a stage and men and women merely
Let me count my loves of thee, my rose garden, my
heart, my fixed mark, my beginning and my end.
An extended metaphor is one where there is a single
main subject to which additional subjects and metaphors
The extended metaphor may act as a central theme, for
example where it is used as the primary vehicle of a
poem and is used repeatedly and in different forms.
Roasting today! (It’s so hot today!)
She had the screaming.
We were drinking the white.
In an implicit metaphor, the full subject is
not explained, but is implied from the
context of the sentence.
Panting hard, he hand-braked the corner, power-sliding
into the doorway. [running as driving]
Noisy twinkling in the night, the shares blew hypnotic
shards of brilliance down on the hopeful investors.
[Share price movement as a sky-rocket firework]
The pataphor is an extreme form of metaphor, taking
the principle to its limit, where the basic metaphor is
typically not mentioned but extensions to it are used
Winning the argument. (argument as
Time is money.
Life as journey.
A root metaphor is one which is so
embedded within a language or culture
that it is often not realized as being a
He was mad.
I'll chew on it.
A simple metaphor has a single link
between the subject and the
metaphoric vehicle. The vehicle thus
has a single meaning which is
transferred directly to the subject.
I like your wheels, man! [wheels = car]
Nice bit of skirt. [skirt = woman]
Try this nib. [nib = pen]
The synechdochic metaphor is one where
a small part or element of something is
used to represent the whole.
-АЛАСЫ АЗ ҚАРА КӨЗІ НҰР ЖАЙНАЙДЫ
-БҰЛ ІСКЕ КІМ ВИНОВАТ?
Я СЕМЕЙДІҢ ҚАЛАСЫ?
Я ҚАЗАҚТЫҢ АЛАСЫ? -АБАЙ
-Тәтті ауыздан дәм кетпей...
-Уылжыған тәтті жас (М.Әуезов)
-Жақынның сөзі тәтті деп...
-Мінезі тәтті болмайды...
-Жылы тәтті жауап айт
-Жақсы ән мен тәтті күй (Абай)
ҮЙ ДЕ ҚОҢЫР, КӨЛЕҢКЕ ДЕ ҚОҢЫР
ҚОҢЫР ҮЙДЕГІ ТҰРМЫС ТА ҚОҢЫР,
ҚОҢЫР ҮЙДЕГІ ЖАНДАР ДА ҚОҢЫР,
ҚОҢЫР ОЙЛЫ ШАЙЗАНЫҢ ӘНІ ДЕ ҚОҢЫР,,
ҚОҢЫРЛАТЫП ЫҢЫРСЫП ӨЛЕҢ АЙТЫП ОТЫРАДЫ,
ӨЛЕҢМЕН ЕМЕС , ҚОҢЫР КҮЙМЕН ІШІНДЕГІ ЗАРЫН