I.Ancient Chinese Civilization
Four Thousand Years of written Civilization
Yuanmou Man (Homo Erectus Yuanmouensis)
Peking Man (Homo Erectus Pekinensis)
Peking Man
Yangshao and Hemudu Culture
Yangshao Pottery
Longshan Culture
Yan Di —a legendary ruler
Emperor Yao, Shun and Yu created a abdication System they ----renounced the throne in turn
Xia Dynasty
Xia Dynasty
Fall of Xia Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty
Shang Rule
Legacy of Shang Dynasty
Legacy of Shang Dynasty
Fall of Shang Dynasty
The Zhou Dynasty
Western Zhou Period (1045–770)
Western Zhou Period (1045–770)
 Eastern Zhou Period or Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)
 Eastern Zhou Period or Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)
Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)
Warring States Period (476–221) and Fall of Zhou Dynasty
Legacy of Zhou Dynasty
Legacy of Zhou Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC) First Imperial Dynasty in China
“China”: Derivative of “Qin”
Legacy of Qin Dynasty
Legacy of Qin Dynasty
Legacy of Qin Dynasty
Legacy of Qin Dynasty
Legacy of Qin Dynasty
Fall of the Qin Dynasty
Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)
Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–9 AD)
Western Han Dynasty Ruling Area
Xin Dynasty (9–23 AD)
Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD)
Eastern Han Dynasty Ruling Area
Fall of Han Dynasty
Legacy of the Han Dynasty
Legacy of the Han Dynasty
Legacy of the Han Dynasty
Legacy of the Han Dynasty
Legacy of the Han Dynasty
The Sui Dynasty (581–618)
Legacy of the Sui Dynasty
Fall of the Sui Dynasty
Legacy of the Sui Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)
The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)
The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)
Fall of the Tang Dynasty
Legacy of Tang Dynasty
Song dynasty 960-1279 AD
Overview of Song Dynasty
Song Intellectual life
Song Art
Fall of Song
Yuan Dynasty
Ming dynasty 1368-1644 A.D
Ming dynasty
Education and officials
Integration of Ming in the world economy
Qing dynasty 1636-1912 A.D
Qing dynasty
Socity in the early rule of Qing
Qing Decline
II.Rrcent Modern China
III. Modern China
Категория: ИсторияИстория

Brief Introduction to China (second Edition)


Brief Introduction to China (second Edition).
Ning Jiming, chief editor.
Beijing language and Culture University Press (2018)


Lecture 2: the History of China
Guanghua Hu
College of Literature & Journalism , CSU


Lecture 2: the History of China
An Overview
of the Content
Chapter I
the ancient history
Chapter II
the recent history
Chapter III
the modern history

4. I.Ancient Chinese Civilization

Lecture 2: the History of China
I.Ancient Chinese
Dynasties, the Mandate of
Heaven, the Silk Road

5. Four Thousand Years of written Civilization

• Chinese written civilization extends backwards
in history in an unbroken chain for nearly 4000
China is one of the world's four ancient
• Written history of China dates back to the
Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC), about 4000
years ago.
• Chinese people made great contributions in
developing new technologies and advancing
human knowledge at that time.

6. Yuanmou Man (Homo Erectus Yuanmouensis)

• This is the earliest ancient inhabitants, lived
estimated 1.7 million years ago. The main way
they obtained food was gathering and hunting.
Due to the adverse natural environment and
harsh conditions of life, Yuanmou Man lived in a
social lifestyle for most of their existence. The
period of culture was called “Paleolithic
The restored image of
Yuanmou people

7. Peking Man (Homo Erectus Pekinensis)

• The bones of Peking Man were found in
caves of Chou-K’ou-tian south of Peking.
They were hunters and lived in caves using
simple stone implements .They knew the arts of
making fire. They buried bones of deaths like
other people in the world which leads towards
that Peking Man already had religious
notions. It is not confirmed that for how long
the remained inhabited but their fist trace is
attributed a million years ago and they may
have flourished in 500,000 BC.
The collection imagination of
Peking Man

8. Peking Man


Mountain caveman
(Upper Cave Man)
·Mountain Caveman unearthed in a mountain
top cave of zhou kou dian,BeiJing.
·These cavemen had husbands and wives system.
·They knew how to carve and tie knot.
·They had a chief with a primitive political
·Mountain cavemen existed 25,000 BC ago.
The restored image of
the caveman

10. Yangshao and Hemudu Culture

• The culture exited from 2000 BC to
1600 or 1500 BC.
• The pottery of the culture is
exquisite, apparently used as gift to
the dead.
• This culture occurred mostly in north
and north-west china. The people
there lived in villages near rivers and
• They practice agriculture and rice was
already known to them.

11. Yangshao Pottery

12. Longshan Culture

• Around 2000 B.C ,it came into existence in
the plains of eastern China.
• Black pottery of exceptional quality was
found. This pottery has a polished appearance
on its exterior , never painted and mostly
without decoration.
• People lived on mounds produced by
repeated building on the ruins of earlier

13. Yan Di —a legendary ruler

• Yan Di means Flame Emperor was a
legendary ancient Chinese ruler in the
pre-dynastic times.
• No written records are known to
exist for the era of Yan emperor’s reign
but it is believed that Yan Di and
Shennong are the same rulers.
The last Yan emperor, met the end of his reign in the battle of Banquan.

14. Emperor Yao, Shun and Yu created a abdication System they ----renounced the throne in turn

• Emperor Yao was a legendary Chinese ruler of the
three sovereigns and five Emperors.
• Yao’s benevolence and diligence served as a model to
future Chinese monarchs and Emperors.
• Yao became the ruler at the age of 20 and died at 119
when he passed his throne to Shun the Great.
• According to the Bamboo Annals, Yao abdicated his
Throne to Shun in his 73rd year of reign and
Continued to live during Shun’s reign for anothr 28
years and later on Shun transfer power to Yu the
founder of the Xia Dynasty. Shun Capital was located
in Puban Presently Shanxi.They both lived in between
2294 to 2184 B.C
Emperor Yao
Emperor Shun
Emperor Yu

15. Dynasties

• The Chinese have been ruled by a succession of dynasties.
• “A dynasty is when one family rules a country or region
over a period of time” or “it is a reign or time period
controlled by members of the same family”.
• The head of the family will be the ruler of the land, like an
emperor or king.
• When that ruler dies, another member of the family will take
power (the oldest son).
• When a new family takes control, then a new dynasty

16. Dynasties

• Xia dynasty 2070-1600 BC
• Shang dynasty 1600-1046 BC
• Jin Dynasty 265-420 AD
• Western Zhou dynasty;Eastern Zhou 1046-771 BC
• Southern and Northern Dynasty 386-589 AD
• Sui dynasty 581-618 AD
• Spring and Autumn Period 770-476 BC;
• Warring States Period 221-206 BC
Qin Dynasty 221-206 BC
• Western Han Dynasty 206 BC-8 AD
• Eastern Han Dynasty 25-220 AD
• Three Kingdoms 220-280 AD
• Tang dynasty 618-907 AD
• Five dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907-960 AD
• Song Dynasty 960-1279 AD
• Yuan or Mongol Dynasty 1271-1368 AD
• Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 AD
• Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 AD

17. Xia Dynasty

The Xia Dynasty was the first dynasty of the ancient Chinese.
It was once thought to be only a myth or legend. But, in the
1960s and 1970s, archaeologists uncovered what looked like
small cities, bronze remains, and tombs that pointed to the
existence of a Xia Dynasty.
It is believed that they ruled around 2070 BC to around 1600
BC for almost 470 or 500 years (the time period is different in
different literature).
• Yu (Yu the Great) was the first ruler of the Xia
Dynasty. He became the heir because of his great ability and
contribution to control the floods by introducing the idea of
digging river to the ocean.

18. Xia Dynasty

• During Yu period, northern tribe kept invading Xia. Yu led his army defeated
those tribes. Because of his great contributions, people give him the name,
Da (Great) Yu.
• Artifacts
Si Mu Wu Ding
1939 (Anyang)
Power and thriving
Discovered in Wuhan,
Hubei in 1974
Language of Xia
Jade Yue
A kind of weapon
used in ceremonies

19. Fall of Xia Dynasty

• The last emperor, named Jie, was very extravagant and fell
into dissipation. Jie constructed a palace for his pleasure and his
loyal ministers who criticized him.
• The Shang clan grew stronger when Xia lost favor with the
other clans. Jie then suppressed Shang and imprisoned Tang
their leader, but he was later released.
• It is said that Emperor Jie lost the Mandate of Heaven, meaning
that it was fated to be replaced.
• The Shang Clan Led Other Clans to Supplant Xia.
• Around 1559 BC, Tang of Shang united the other clans to
suppress Jie and succeeded. Jie was banished, and Tang became
the first leader of the Shang Dynasty.
Emperor Jie

20. The Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dynasty was the second of the three ancient
Chinese dynasties.
It was the first dynasty with written records inscriptions
on bones and bronze objects.
As many historians do not consider the Xia Dynasty a true
dynasty, the Shang Dynasty is often called the first true
Chinese dynasty.
• When the Shang tribal leader conquered the Xia
Dynasty territory, they spread the Shang Empire to cover
northern and central China during 1600 to 1046 BC.
The Shang ruled much of the area along the Yellow River.
Their last capital city was the great city of Yin (modern-day

21. Shang Rule

• The government also had a tight
hierarchical structure with many levels
of leaders. The closer they were to the
king, the higher their status, power, and
• The Shang Empire spread from the
Beijing area to south of the Yangtze

22. Legacy of Shang Dynasty

• One of the most important contributions of the
Shang Dynasty era was is the distinctive and
complex pictographic writing system.
• They used writing to record historical events, to
write official signs, for fortunetelling and
prognostication (wrote on oracle bones).
wrote on what are called oracle bones

23. Legacy of Shang Dynasty

• Chinese bronze casting and pottery advanced during the Shang dynasty, with
bronze typically being used for ritually significant.
• The bronze vessels and tools showed that the Shang people had a high level of
bronze metallurgy. They were able to cast large cauldrons called dings.

24. Fall of Shang Dynasty

Emperor Shang Zhou
Fall of Shang Dynasty
• The last Shang king was named Shang Zhou. The emperor Shang Wu
was a tyrant.His fall mirrors the fall of the last Xia emperor.
• It was thought he lost the Mandate of Heaven.
• The rulers of a neighboring tribe were called the Zhou. Like King Jie
and the Xia Dynasty, he was defeated by the Zhou rulers because his
own people rebelled. His own troops and slaves joined the Zhou in the
final battle.
• The new Zhou ruler of the nascent Zhou Dynasty (1045–221 BC)
was named Zhou Wu.
• He allowed Shang Zhou's son to rule the Shang people as vassals.
• The Zhou rulers also dispersed prominent Shang people to other
Emperor Zhou Wu crusaded
against Emperor Shang Zhou

25. The Zhou Dynasty

The Zhou family was able to defeat and overthrow the
last Shang Dynasty king.
It was technically the longest dynasty with over 800
years of ruling, though the Zhou had effectively lost
power by 770 BC.
The era is divided into three periods:
Western Zhou Dynasty (1045–771 BC);
Spring and Autumn Period (770–476), when the
empire divided into dozens of competing kingdoms;
Warring States Period (475–221), when small
kingdoms coalesced into several big warring states.

26. Western Zhou Period (1045–770)

Emperor Zhou Wu
• According to written accounts, the king of the Zhou tribe who was
called Zhou Wu attacked the last king of the Shang Dynasty and
became the first Zhou emperor.
• It is thought that the Zhou Empire was initially politically
centralized over a small territory around the Yellow river.
• The Zhou Dynasty is said to have been initially strong.
The ruling clan's name was Ji. But over time, as the territory grew,
local rulers became more powerful.
• As the empire expanded in size, various strong clans emerged and
expanded their territories.

27. Western Zhou Period (1045–770)


28.  Eastern Zhou Period or Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)

Eastern Zhou Period or
Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)
• In 771 BC, after King You replaced his wife with a
concubine, the capital was attacked by his wife's father
who ruled a region called Shen and by a nomadic tribe
called the Quan Rong.
• The rulers of several of the regions in the empire
proclaimed the queen's son who was named Ji Yijiu to be
the new king.
• The capital was moved eastward in 770 BC from Haojing
in Xi'an to Luoyang in present-day Henan Province
(marking the start of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty of 770–221
• The sack of the king and the change of capital mark the
end of the rule of the Ji clan over the whole region.
• After 771, the Zhou Dynasty became the nominal leading

29.  Eastern Zhou Period or Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)

Eastern Zhou Period or
Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)

30. Spring and Autumn Period (770-221 BC)

• The Spring and Autumn Period was the beginning of the Eastern Zhou era.
• During this period, the Zhou Empire reached the Yangtze River, and was centered on the
eastern part of the Yellow River.
• The first king to rule in the eastern capital, Luoyang, was said to be King Ping.

31. Warring States Period (476–221) and Fall of Zhou Dynasty

• After the relatively peaceful and philosophical Spring and
Autumn Period, in the warren state period various kingdoms
fought for over 200 years before the Qin State conquered them
• In the Warring States Period, technology advanced and iron
tools and weapons became common.
• Armies of organized mounted soldiers with masses of infantry
became common. In the end, the Qin could muster armies of
hundreds of thousands.
• In 221 BC, the State of Qin conquered the last of the
warring states, and united China under the Qin Dynasty.

32. Legacy of Zhou Dynasty

Hundred Schools of Thought
• The Spring and Autumn Period was known as the time of the
"Hundred Schools of Thought".
• Since there was some level of peace, people could discuss and
teach their ideas freely and was a fertile time for the development
of philosophy and religion.
• Private schools established during the Spring/Autumn Period as
well as Warring States period and were led by a teacher or a
philosopher who represented the particular thoughts.
• Major philosophies emerged that were passed to later empires:
Legalism, Confucianism, and Taoism, Mohism, Buddhism.

33. Legacy of Zhou Dynasty

Zhou Technological and Scientific Achievements
• Perfection of bronze casting.
• Gold and silver inlays in metal and wooden/lacquered objects.
• Development of warfare technology like iron weapons.
• Engineering technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dikes,
• Development of music temptation by pipes and bells.
• Dyeing of yarns and woven materials like silk and linen.
• Perfection of the calendar
• Regular observation of the sky, recording of irregular astronomical events
• Maps of the sky; The first geographical maps
• Division of China into the Nine Provinces
• Geometry and trigonometry

34. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC) First Imperial Dynasty in China

• In 221 BC the Qin ruler had overthrown all remaining members of the
Zhou Dynasty, and all other oppositions to lay the foundation of the
imperial rule.
• In only 9 years in successive wars from 230 to 221, the Qin conquered
every other region of the former Zhou Empire and the outlying regions
to the south all the way to Vietnam and to the north towards
• They had the biggest empire in the region's history until then.
• But, their dynastic rule from 221-206 BC was the shortest in the
region's history. Their empire fell apart after only 15 years.
Emperor Qin Shihuang

35. “China”: Derivative of “Qin”

The Qin Dynasty would only last about 15 years. Yet during these short
years, they expand the ruling area. The Qin was so influential that, some
literature believe that the name, China, is a derived from of their name.

36. Legacy of Qin Dynasty

Standardization and Centralization
• The emperor reunified China after hundreds years of war.
• The emperor standardized the writing, language, law, currency,
weights and measures. Tax system was also implemented.
• The emperor rejected the Confucius and enforce Legalism. Those
who obey the law were rewarded and who do not were punished.
• Qin created provinces to run the government more smoothly.
• Qin Shi Huang also reorganized the affairs of empire. He wanted
everything under his direct authority so he appointed his own
government officials in different provinces to run government.
• He also setup military control in each region so that local nobleman
could not rebel against the emperor.
• To unify and centralized the empire, the emperor build roads,
irrigation canals and massive fortifications.

37. Legacy of Qin Dynasty

An example of Standardization and Centralization
All people are subject to me
Every field harvest
Everyone can have enough food.

38. Legacy of Qin Dynasty

Terracotta Army

39. Legacy of Qin Dynasty

Terracotta Army

40. Legacy of Qin Dynasty

The GREAT WALL of China
Early emperors had built walls in the northern territories
to protect their nation against attack from outside forces.
But these walls were spread across the landscape, and not
Qin ordered his people to connect the existing walls
together, and to expand them, eventually covering over
4000 miles.
After working for several years, the Great Wall of China
was completed, and still stands today as one of the great
building projects in human history.

41. Fall of the Qin Dynasty

Qin Shi huang died in 210, and Li Si and Zhao Gao hid the news of his
death.They had his son named Huhai who they thought was pliable
installed as the second emperor. He was called Qin Er Shi.In their drive
for power, Zhao Gao killed Li Si. Qin Er Shi killed off his family
members and numerous officials in his attempt to strengthen his rule. He
ordered foolish construction projects and policies and forced the people
to obey him. Zhao Gao forced Qin Er Shi to commit suicide.
Qin Er Shi's nephew named Ziying became the third emperor.
By this time, there were revolts all over the empire, and many local
officials were declaring themselves to be kings of their areas. He tried to
maintain his power and survive by recognizing their rule while he tried
to retain his position in the territory he still controlled.Bigger revolts
against him started, and the new kings started battling. Rebels from Chu
rebels under Liu Bang attacked. Liu Bang defeated Ziying, and ZiYing
was executed in 207. In 206, the Qin capital city was destroyed.This was
the end of the Qin Empire. Liu Bang defeated his main rivals in war to
become emperor of a new empire called the Han Dynasty.
Emperor Liu Bang

42. Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD)

The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty which behind the intense
Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the fractured Three Kingdoms Period. This
dynasty was led by a peasant whose name was Liu Bang.
Some literature believe that the emperor Wu Han was the first emperor of Han
Han Dynasty is considered to be the longest imperial dynasty until then.
With the death of Qin came a golden age to China, a long period of stability
and wealth with the Han dynasty.
It was divided into three periods:
the Western Han (206 BC – 9 AD),the Xin Dynasty (9–23 AD), the Eastern
Han (25–220 AD).
Liu Bang

43. Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–9 AD)

The Western Han empire was the first large and longsurviving empire in the region which was lasted from
206 BC until 9 AD.
The Western Han Dynasty succeeded in stabilizing the
empire, expanding its territory, increasing trade, and
beginning a tradition of dynastic government staffed by
Confucian scholars.

44. Western Han Dynasty Ruling Area

45. Xin Dynasty (9–23 AD)

Wang Mang (45 BC – 23 AD), the official who claimed he
had the Mandate of Heaven, ruled the Xin Dynasty (which
literally means 'new dynasty’).
He tried to implement far-reaching policies.
Wang Mang tried to change society by abolishing slavery,
redistributing the land, and issuing a new currency.
He reforms seem strikingly modern. But there were natural
disasters, and peasants revolted against him.
After he was killed in 23 AD, the city of Luoyang in the east
became the new capital.
In this way, the Eastern Han era began.

46. Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD)

After a member of the old imperial clan became
emperor again, the Han Dynasty reign continued in
the new capital at Luoyang.
Emperor Guangwu (Ruled 25–57)
The Eastern Han Dynasty began when a member of
the Han dynastic clan came to power. His name
was Emperor Guangwu.
Emperor Guangwu.

47. Eastern Han Dynasty Ruling Area

48. Fall of Han Dynasty

• Emperor Han Xian (Ruled 190–220) — the Last Emperor of Han
During the last two decades, there were a lot of assassinations in the imperial
court. In 195, Emperor Xian sought refuge with a regional ruler named Cao
Emperor Han Xian
The emperor lived in Xuchang, which was one of the cities that was in Cao
Cao's territory. Cao Cao reigned in the emperor's name and had the title of
Chief Commander.
In 200, a northern territorial ruler named Yuan Shao led an army to attack
Xuchang but Cao Cao defeated them.
By 207, Cao Cao had control of the area north of the Yangtze River. Liu Bei
was the leader in the territory of Shu Han in the southwest around Sichuan,
and Sun Quan was the leader in the region of Dong Wu in the southeast.
These three regions of the empire became kingdoms.
Cao Cao

49. Legacy of the Han Dynasty

Silk Road
In order to make trade possible , Emperor Wu began
to develop what has been called in modern times, the
silk road.
The silk road consisted of trails, roads, bridges, and
pathways that stretched across nearly 5000 miles of
land and water. It is not one long road, but rather many
smaller roads and pathways that were connected and
worn by the use of thousands of travelers over a period
of hundreds of years.
Following this route merchant traders took silk from
China to the West, and brought glass, linen, and gold
back to China. The silk road become instrumental in
the development and expansion of trade, and the
accumulation of wealth in both China and Rome, as
well as in Egypt and other nations.

50. Legacy of the Han Dynasty

Silk Road

51. Legacy of the Han Dynasty

• Food Reserve
During the Han reign the storage of food techniques were introduced.
During times of plenty, Han emperors would have great amounts of
food put up into storage. Then during difficult times, they would sell
these food stores, helping to stabilize food prices.
• Merit-Based Appointments
The Han also abolished the practice of giving powerful government
positions to members of the royal family.
Emperor Wu instituted a series of written exams. Anyone could
take the tests. Those who received the highest scores were given posts
in the government.

52. Legacy of the Han Dynasty

Legacy of the Han Dynasty
The Han dynasty controlled the two most important industries Silk and Salt. Silk was a material made from fibers
of a silkworm cocoon. The Han developed a foot powered reeling machine that threaded the silk faster, which
improved production.Salt was another important part of industry because it was used to preserve food and for
a seasoning.The Han developed a bamboo pole that helped the salt water enter the pole, which produced more salt.
During the Han Dynasty, a key advance was made in art with the invention of paper. Before paper the Chinese
used bones, silk, and bamboo.

53. Legacy of the Han Dynasty

Legacy of the Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty believed that illness occurred when the yin and the Yang
were out of balance. One technique developed by Chinese healers
was acupuncture. Acupuncture is believed to be useful for curing illnesses
like headaches.
A second healing method was moxibustion, in this method a moxa, a small
cone of powdered leaves or sticks is placed near or on the skin. The heat
is believed to reduce pain and promote healing.The Han also discovered that
heartbeat as a way to judge health and that blood circulates from the heart
throughout your body.
Chinese astronomers closely observed the heavens and recorded comets,
eclipses, and the moon.
The Chinese of this period also invented two very useful instruments, the
seismograph and the magnetic compass. The invention of the seismograph
led the Chinese to detect earthquakes several hundred miles away and using
a loadstone would help them with direction and exploring.
the seismograph

54. The Sui Dynasty (581–618)

Wen (581–604)
The Sui Dynasty (581–618)
The Sui Dynasty (581–618) ruled over much of China, after uniting the
four kingdoms of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420–589).
Reminiscent of the Qin Empire, it was a short, intense dynasty, with great
conquests and achievements.
It's considered with the following Tang Dynasty (618–907) as a great
Chinese era.
It Capital was first at Daxing (Xi'an), then moved to Luoyang.
Only two emperors ruled during the Sui Dynasty
Wen (581–604)
Yang (604–618)
Yang (604–618)

55. Legacy of the Sui Dynasty

56. Fall of the Sui Dynasty

Many reasons led to the fall of The Sui Dynasty like the
loss of life, the forced labor, and the heavy taxes.
Heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties caused
widespread revolts and a brief civil war.
Emperor Yang was assassinated in 618 by his adviser,
Yuwen Huaji.
In the northern part of the empire, Li Yuan (566–635)
and his clan emerged as powerful rulers.
After capturing Daxing (now Xi'an), Li Yuan declared
himself Emperor Gaozu of the Tang Dynasty in the
year 618. (Li Yuan was actually Emperor Yang's cousin.
Their mothers were sisters.)

57. Legacy of the Sui Dynasty

Grand Canal Construction
A major engineering achievement was finishing the construction of much of the Grand Canal from Hangzhou to

58. The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)

The Li family was an important military force during the Sui empire.
In 618, Emperor Gong abdicated his throne and Li Yuan took the throne. The Tang Dynasty was then established.
The Tang Dynasty was one of the most prosperous dynasties in Chinese history.
It was the golden age for poetry and painting, and best known for tricolored glazed pottery and woodblock
Tang's capital was Chang'an (modern-day Xi'an), while Luoyang was the capital during Emperor Wu Zetian's reign.

59. The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)

Emperor Gaozu
The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)
• Emperor Gaozu (Ruled 618–626)
Emperor Gaozu, born as Li Yuan, was the founder of the Tang
Dynasty. Before the year 618, Li Yuan served as the governor of
Shaanxi Province. In 617, the Sui government was falling apart and the
whole country was in anarchy.
Li Yuan rose up in rebellion, encouraged by his son, Li Shimin, in
Taiyuan. The army conquered the capital Chang'an (modern-day Xi’an).
But in 618, Emperor Gong of Sui abdicated his throne and Li Yuan
became Emperor Gaozu of Tang.
Emperor Xuanzong (Ruled 712–762)
Emperor Xuanzong was the seventh emperor of Tang. In the early stage
of his reign, he brought the Tang Dynasty to a golden age.
It is thought that it was the most prosperous era for Chinese poetry.
Emperor Gaozu

60. The Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD)

61. Fall of the Tang Dynasty

Just like other dynasties Tang dynasty also come to an end
due to revenue base began to erode as the imperial land
grants to notables who avoided taxes.
Finally, In 874, The Huang Chao Rebellion broke out.
People who survived the flooding and famine rose up
against the government.
In 904, Emperor Ai was chosen to be the puppet ruler by a
military governor, Zhu Wen. Then in 907, Emperor Ai was
forced to abdicate, and Zhu took the throne. Zhu Wen
changed the empire to the Later Liang Dynasty.
That was the end of the Tang Dynasty and the beginning
of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.

62. Legacy of Tang Dynasty

Scholars wrote more encyclopedias and kept better records
than previous dynasties. Poetry and literature became more
prevalent, wood block printing became available.
Li Bai and Du Fu are often thought of as China's greatest
poets who lived during the beginning and middle periods of
the Tang Dynasty.
Li Bai is called “Poetry Fairy”,authored around 1,000 extant
poems and 34 of them are included in the popular
anthology 300 Tang Poems compiled by the Chinese scholar
Sun Zhu.
His friend, Du Fu, often referred to as “the Poet-Sage”,
wrote nearly 1,500 poems with themes such as history,
military tactics, painting and morality and written in various
registers such as colloquial, allusive, and literary.
Li Bai
Du Fu


Li Bai Famous Poem (Quiet Night Thought)
Moonlight before my bed
Perhaps frost on the ground.
Lift my head and see the moon
Lower my head and I miss my home.
Du Fu Famous Poem (Moonlit Night)
Tonight my wife must watch alone
the full moon over Fu-zhou;
I think sadly of my sons and daughters far away,
too young to understand this separation
or remember our life in Chang'an.
In fragrant mist, her flowing hair is damp;
In clear moonlight, her jade-white arms are cold.
When will we lean at the open casement together
while the moonlight dries our shining tears?

64. Song dynasty 960-1279 AD

Song dynasty is commonly divided into Bei (Northern) and Nan (Southern) Song periods, as the
dynasty ruled only in South China after 1127.

65. Overview of Song Dynasty

Agriculture improved
Paper currency used regularly
Private trade grew and market economy began to
costal provinces.
Increased trade along silk road, grand canal, costal
regions and south east Asia.
Hydraulic grain mill

66. Song Intellectual life

Magnetic compass and abacus invented
Education improved since schools were abundant and
wood block printing made books widely available
Confucian scholars were respected, and military was

67. Song Art

Monumental landscape painting.
Often done in a water color or ink
wash style
Great poetry continues

68. Fall of Song

Heavy dependence on growth of civilian government
at expense of military.
By 1127, the Song court could not push back the
northern Nomadic invaders.

69. Yuan Dynasty

Date: 1271-1368.
Founded by Kublai Khan.
Historical status: the first unified dynasty established by ethnic
minorities in Chinese history.
China had the largest territory in the Yuan Dynasty.
Marco Polo, Italy wrote the travels of Marco Polo; a large number of
Persians and Arabs moved in and mixed with Han, Mongolian Uygur
and other ethnic groups to form a new nation-Hui.
Kublai Khan

70. Ming dynasty 1368-1644 A.D

Centralized bureaucratic regime.
Traditions of rule and government
Loss of mandate of the heaven by Mongol rulers
Establishment of Ming dynasty by peasant, zhu

71. Ming dynasty

Date: 1368-1644.
Founder: Zhu Yuanzhang.
Major events: the last unified dynasty established by the
Han nationality in Chinese history;
Zheng he's seven voyages to the West to open up the
Maritime Silk Road;
Italian missionary Matteo Ricci came to China.
Zhu Yuanzhang's son, Zhu Di, succeeded as emperor to build
large-scale cities and palaces in Beijing, and officially moved
to Beijing in 1421.
Zheng he's seven voyages to the West

72. Education and officials

• Importance of scholar-officials
• Civil service examination system:
• Based on Confucian classics
• Staffed the government bureaucracy
• Elaborate the intensive system of exam

73. Integration of Ming in the world economy

• The effect of rapid growth in textile
and porcelain industries on:
• Agriculture
• Currency
• Trade
• cities

74. Qing dynasty 1636-1912 A.D

• The Manchu created the Qing Dynasty in 1650
• The Manchu Elite adopted Chinese ways in
Bureaucracy and court ceremonies.
• The Qing dynasty ruled an area longer than any
previous dynasty had except the Tang.

75. Qing dynasty

• The two most famous emperors of the Qing Dynasty were Emperor
Kangxi (r. 1661–1772) and Emperor Qianlong (r. 1735–96). Their reigns
were "a golden age of prosperity".
• However, the last Chinese dynasty is shamefully remembered for the forced
trade of the late Qing era. China was reduced to being a semi-colonial,
semi-imperial country after the First Opium War, which began in 1839.
Emperor Kangxi
Emperor Qianlong

76. Socity in the early rule of Qing

• Maintained the social system of the Ming.
• Rank and the acceptance of Hierarchy were emphasized.
• Extended family remained the core unit among the elite.
• Women continued to be subservient to men.
• Their lives centered on the household.
• Daughters were less wanted than sons.
• Lower-Class women continued to work in fields and markets.

77. Economy

• Commercial and urban expansion increased during the
first century of Manchu rule
• The influx of silver in payment for exports created a
favorable balance of payments.
• European traders came to Canton, and Chinese merchants
traveled overseas.
• Anew group of merchants, the compradors, who specialized
in the import-export trade were a major link between China
and the outside world..

78. Qing Decline

• British had lacked commodities to exchange for Chinese goods and the import of
opium form India into China, reversed the trade balance in British favor.
• European trading areas were blockaded, and opium destroyed, in result of British.
• Chinese technology had fallen far behind the British as a result of industrialization
and Chinese were defeated on sea and land and sued for peace. After that, a series of
unequal treaties were signed.


A new
comes to
reforms govt,
lower taxes,
more farming
begin (wars,
Emperor is
Rebels united
strong leader,
Respect lost,
rebels attack
Taxes go up,

80. II.Rrcent Modern China

Lecture 2: the History of China
Modern China
Wars, Revolutions,
overthrown of the last
Dynasty and the Success of
Communist party


Section II
Recent Modern History
China's recent modern history
is a semi-colonial and semifeudal social history from the
Opium War in 1814 to before
the founding of the people's
Republic of China in 1949.


Important events in recent modern history
The first Opium War (1840)
6. Reform Movement of 1898
2. The second Opium War (1865-1860)
7. Boxer Movement (1898-1900)
3. Westernization Movement (1861-1894)
8. The Revolution of 1911 (1911)
4.Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement (1851-1864)
9. The May 4th Movement (1919)
5. Sino-Japanese War (1894)
10. New Culture Movement (1915-1923)
11. The Communist Party of China was founded (1921)
12.The War of Resistance against Japan (1937-1945)
13. War of Liberation (1946-1949)


1. The first Opium War
The news of China's smoking ban spread to Britain, which launched a
war of aggression against China.The Opium War broke out in June
The Qingzhen government was defeated. Forced to sign the Treaty of
Nanjing. China's territorial sovereignty has been undermined.
Lin Zexu destroys opium in Humen


2.The second Opium War
In 1856, Britain and France jointly launched another war of aggression against China,
that is, the second Opium War and invaded Beijing in 1860 and set Old Summer Palace on
The Qing government was forced to sign more unequal treaties.
The Qing court paid a large amount of war reparations and lost large tracts of land.


3. Westernization Movement
In the middle and late 19th century, facing the situation of internal
and external troubles, the Qing government was forced to learn from
the West, which is known as the "Westernization Movement".
Shanghai Jiangnan General Administration of Manufacturing,
a weapons factory set up in the Westernization Movement


4. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement
After the Opium War, the people of Guangxi lived in poverty. Hong Xiuquan
founded the God worship Society and called on the people to resist and struggle.


5. Sino-Japanese War of 1894
In 1894, Japan sent troops to invade Korea and China.
The Chinese army and people rebelled, and the Sino-Japanese
war broke out, and China finally lost the war. China signed the
Treaty of Shimonoseki with Japan, compensated Japan 200
million taels of silver, and ceded Taiwan and the Penghu
Islands to Japan.


6. The Reform Movement of 1898
Nature: A campaign involving political, economic, military
and cultural reforms
Objective: To establish a constitutional monarchy political
Results: It lasted only over 100 days and ended in failure.
On September 28, 1898, Tan Sitong, Kang Guangren,
Lin Xu, Yang Shenxiu, Yang Rui and Liu Guangdi, six
gentlemen of the Reform Movement of 1898, were brutally
killed in Beijing.


7. The Boxer Movement
Nature: Yihequan, secret folk associations and martial arts organizations in Shandong and Zhili developed.
The Boxer Movement is also known as the Boxer incident.
The slogan is: "help the Qing government destroy foreign countries".
Heroic deeds: on June 13, 1900, Western countries formed a coalition to invade Beijing, which was tenaciously blocke
by the Boxer, and also attacked Western embassies and churches in Beijing.
The result: it was suppressed, but broke the Western plan to carve up China.


8.The revolution of 1911
Outbreak Time: 1911
Results: overthrew the Qing government and ended China's
autocratic monarchy for more than 2,000 years.
Photos of Sun Yat-sen
Statue of Sun Yat-sen


Time: 1918
9. The may 4th movement
Trigger: Paris Peace Conference Fails
Nature: A patriotic anti-imperialist and
anti-feudal movement launched by
students in Beijing and gradually
developing into the whole country.
Pictures of the may 4th movement


10. New culture movement
Time: 1915-1923
Sponsors: Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, Lu
Xun,Li Dazhao etc
Slogan: Democracy and Science
Important content: advocate new
morality; Advocating vernacular and
opposing classical Chinese; Advocate
new literature and oppose old
Four Representatives of the New Culture Movement:
Lu Xun, Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu and Hu Shi


11. The founding of the communist party of China
Date of establishment: 1921
Venue: On a cruise boat in South Lake of Jiaxing
Red Boat Traveling on Lake
Jiaxing Red Boat


12.The War of Resistance against Japan
Start time: September 18, 1931
"September 18 incident"
Closing time: August 15, 1945.
Result: Japan announced unconditional surrender


13. Liberation War
Beginning of the war: June 1946
End time: On April 24, 1949, the PLA defeated Nanjing.
Results: The People's Republic of China was
established and the Kuomintang retired from Taiwan.
Peaceful liberation of beijing

96. III. Modern China

Lecture 2: the History of China
III. Modern China
The founding of the people's
Republic of China, land reform,
reform and opening up


Section 3 Modern Chinese History
The founding ceremony was held in Tiananmen Square on October 1, 1949,
marking China's entry into the period of socialist society and modern history.


I.Major events before reform and opening up
1.Land reform
3. The first
five-year Plan
2. The movement
of "three evils"
and "five evils"
4. Great Leap
5. People's
6. During the
7.The movement of
educated youth going
to the countryside
8. Restore the
college entrance
examination system


1. Land reform
In 1950, the Chinese government began to
carry out land reform: confiscating the land of
the landlord class and distributing it to landless
peasants; allocating a certain amount of land to
landlords so that they could transform
themselves through labor.
The peasants allocated the land


2. The movement of "three evils" and "five evils"
Time: 1951-1952.
Content: launch the campaign of "anti-corruption, anti-waste, anti-
bureaucracy" among the staff of party and state organs, and carry out the
campaign of "anti-bribery, anti-tax evasion, anti-theft and fraud of state
property, anti-Jerry-building and anti-theft of economic intelligence" in
industry and commerce.
Results: the vast number of cadres were educated, the illegal acts of
illegal capitalists were cracked down on, and a good law-abiding management
education was carried out in industry and commerce.


3. The first five-year Plan
Time: 1953-1957.
Objective: to change China from a backward agricultural
country to an advanced industrial country.
Effect: it has established China's industrial foundation and
changed the face of the country's economic development.
Result: a large number of basic industrial sectors that did not
exist in old China were established, and various industries
were developed, which improved the economic development
of the country and the living standards of the people.


4. Great Leap forward Movement
Time: 1958-1960.
Content: in order to change the poverty and backwardness of the
Chinese people, the Great Leap forward movement was launched
throughout the country.
Results: It was divorced from the reality and caused false emptiness;
the whole people made steelmaking and destroyed natural resources; but it
did build a number of important projects, such as Daqing oil field,
breaking through atomic cutting-edge technology, and so on.


5. People's commune movement
Time: 1958-1980.
Content: in the late 1950s, China carried out the people's
commune movement in an all-round way.
The characteristic of the people's commune is "one big and
two public".
The commune has a large scale, a large population and a large
number of land, and has set up "cooperatives of ten thousand
people" and "cooperatives of a thousand households", thus
making the co-operation of agricultural production more
collectivized and the degree of public ownership higher.


6. During the Cultural Revolution
Time: 1966-1976.
Purpose: Only by regaining the power usurped by the
capitalists can we eliminate the danger of the restoration of
Result: The Cultural Revolution caused the party, the country
and the people to suffer the most serious setbacks and losses
since the founding of the people's Republic of China.


7. The movement of educated youth to the mountains and the countryside
Time: 1968-1978.
Content: call on young people to go to the
Objective: to solve the problem of the way out for a
large number of middle school students.
Results: the problem of urban employment has been
solved, and great contributions have been made to the
construction of frontier areas and rural areas.
But it also brings a lot of negative effects.


8. Restore the enrollment system
of college entrance examination
From 1966 to 1971, Chinese universities stopped enrolling students.
From 1972 to 1976, the university recommended the recruitment of
workers, peasants and soldiers.
In 1977, the Ministry of Education announced the resumption of
entrance examinations for all colleges and universities, which
ushered in the spring of respecting knowledge and talents.


II.The important events after the reform and opening up.
1. The third Plenary
session of the Eleventh
Central Committee
3. The implementation
of the policy of opening
to the outside world.
2. Rural reform
4. The first stock
exchange was
5. Deng Xiaoping's
talk in the South
6. The return
of Hong Kong
and Macao
7. China's entry
into WTO
9. The overall national
strength and international
influence have improved
8. Propose to build a
well-off society in an
all-round way


1. The third Plenary session of the
Eleventh Central Committee
In December 1978, the third Plenary session of
the 11th CPC Central Committee was held in
Beijing, and the plenary session made the decision
to focus its work on modernization.


2. Rural reform (1978)
Xiaogang Village in Fengyang,
Anhui Province is the birthplace of
China's rural reform.
Today's Xiaogang Village


3. The implementation of the policy
of opening to the outside world
In March 1980, the central government
decided to establish special economic
zones to attract and utilize foreign capital in
various forms and learn from foreign
advanced technology and management


4. The first stock exchange was established
The Shanghai Stock Exchange was
officially established in November 1990.
Today, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange,
the Shenzhen Stock Exchange and the
Shanghai Stock Exchange are
Shanghai Stock Exchange


5. Deng Xiaoping's talk in the South
In the spring of 1992, Deng
Xiaoping visited Wuchang, Shenzhen,
Zhuhai and Shanghai in the south and
issued a series of speeches.
Deng Xiaoping inspected Wuchang,
Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shanghai


6. Hong Kong and Macao return to the motherland
In January 1997 and December 20, 1999, Hong Kong and
Macao returned to China respectively.
Macao's return to the motherland
Hong Kong's return to the motherland


7. China's accession to the World Trade Organization
In 2001, China joined the WTO.
Since then, China's international competitiveness
has been significantly enhanced, and China has
achieved common development and prosperity with
other countries in the world.
Signing ceremony of China's accession to
the World Trade Organization


8.Proposed to build a moderately prosperous
society in an all-round way (2002)
In November 2002, the 16th Congress of the
Communist Party of China clearly established the goal
of building a well-off society in an all-round way: to
concentrate its efforts in the first two decades of this
century and build a higher-level well-off society
benefiting more than a billion people in an all-round way.


9. The overall national strength and international
influence have improved significantly.
From 2008 to 2012, China
effectively dealt with the serious
impact of the international financial
crisis, maintained steady and rapid
economic development, and GDP
ranked second in the world.


The above pictures are for teaching only
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