Confederation, 1867
Canada wasn’t born out of revolution or a sweeping outburst of nationalism.
The union of British North America was a long-simmering idea. But by the 1860s, it had become a serious question in the
The Great Coalition
Charlottetown Conference
Fathers and Mothers of Confederation
Québec Conference
Confederation, 1867
Indigenous Perspectives
Категория: Английский языкАнглийский язык

History of Canada. The presentation was prepared by a student

1. Confederation, 1867

History of Canada. The presentation was prepared by a student
of group 21-EG, Menshykh Irina

2. Canada wasn’t born out of revolution or a sweeping outburst of nationalism.

Instead, it was
created in a
series of
and orderly
culminating in
the terms of
on 1 July


The union of the
British North
American colonies of
New Brunswick, Nova
Scotia, and the
Province of Canada
(what is now Ontario
and Québec) was the
first step in a slow
but steady nationbuilding exercise that
would come to
encompass other
territories, and
eventually fulfill the
dream of a country A
Mari usque ad Mare
— from sea to sea.


But support for Confederation wasn’t universal. Indigenous people were never asked
if they wanted to join, for example, and many others launched staunch opposition
before and after 1867. From Indigenous to francophone resistance, opponents of
Confederation have shaped the way we think about Canada as much as the Fathers
of Confederation.

5. The union of British North America was a long-simmering idea. But by the 1860s, it had become a serious question in the

Province of Canada. In the Atlantic colonies, however,
a great deal of pressure would still be necessary to convert romantic ideas of a single
northern nation into political reality.
1. American
2. Trade.
3. Railways.

6. The Great Coalition

In the early 1860s, the politics of the
Province of Canada were marked by
instability and deadlock, a result of the
union of Upper and Lower Canada some
20 years earlier. The Great Coalition of
1864 united George Brown’s Reformers,
John A. Macdonald’s Liberal
Conservatives in Canada West, and
George-Étienne Cartier ’s bleus in
Canada East, in support of
Confederation. It proved to be a turning
point in Canadian history, paving the
way for the Charlottetown Conference.

7. Charlottetown Conference

The Charlottetown
Conference of
September 1864 set
Confederation in motion.
The meeting brought
together delegates from
New Brunswick , Nova
Scotia and Prince
Edward Island to discuss
the union of their three
provinces. However, they
were persuaded by the
Great Coalition from the
Province of Canada —
not originally on the
guest list — to work for
the union of all the British
North American colonies.

8. Fathers and Mothers of Confederation

The 36 men traditionally
regarded as the Fathers of
Confederation were those who
represented British North
American colonies at one or
more of the conferences that
led to Confederation. The
subject of who should be
included among the Fathers of
Confederation has been a
matter of some debate.
The wives and daughters of the
original 36 men have also been
described as the Mothers of
Confederation for their role in
the social gatherings that were
a vital part of the
Charlottetown, Québec and
London Conferences.

9. Québec Conference

Delegates gathered in Québec
City to continue discussions started
the previous month in
Charlottetown. The broad
decisions of Charlottetown were
refined and focused into 72
resolutions, which became the
basis of Confederation. Among
the most important issues decided
in Québec were the composition
of Parliament and the distribution
of powers between the federal
and provincial governments.

10. Confederation, 1867

Worried about the cost of
defending Britain’s North
American colonies against
potential US aggression, British
Colonial Secretary Edward
Cardwell was a strong supporter
of Confederation. He instructed
his governors in North America
in the strongest language
possible, to promote the idea,
which they did. The London
Conference, from December
1866 to February 1867, was
the final stage of translating the
72 Resolutions of 1864 into
legislation. The result was the
British North America Act of
1867 (now called the
Constitution Act, 1867), which
passed through the British
Parliament and was signed by
Queen Victoria on 29 March
1867. It was proclaimed into
law on 1 July 1867, which
Canadians now celebrate as
Canada Day.

11. Indigenous Perspectives

Indigenous peoples were not invited to or represented at the
Charlottetown and Québec Conferences, even though they had
established what they believed to be bilateral (nation-to-nation)
relationships and commitments with the Crown through historic
treaties. Paternalistic views about Indigenous peoples effectively
left Canada’s first peoples out of the formal discussions about
unifying the nation.
Despite their exclusion, Confederation had a significant impact
on Indigenous communities. In 1867, the federal government
assumed responsibility over Indigenous affairs from the colonies.
With the purchase of Rupert’s Land in 1869, the Dominion of
Canada extended its influence over the Indigenous peoples
living in that region. Seeking to develop, settle and claim these
lands, as well as those in the surrounding area, the Dominion
signed a series of 11 treaties from 1871 to 1921 with various
Indigenous peoples, promising them money, certain rights to the
land and other concessions in exchange for their traditional
territories. Most of these promises went unfulfilled or were
misunderstood by the signatories. The years following
Confederation saw increased government systems of
assimilation, including reserves, the Indian Act and residential


Thank you for attention!
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