Категория: ОбразованиеОбразование

Qualitative research


Prepared: Kassymbek Nurzada
Kazkeyeva Amina
Zhumabek Akerke
Zhumazhanov Abylai
Karibayev Ardak


What is qualitative research?
Qualitative research is a method of scientific research
that focuses on the subjective nature of the object
being analyzed, for example by examining its
features and individual experiences. With the help of
qualitative research, respondents can freely express
their point of view on certain subjects that are related
to the object of research. In a qualitative study, the
responses are not objective and the goal is not to
quantify as a result, but rather to understand the
behavior of a particular target group.


The main characteristics of
qualitative research are:
Availability of highly qualified interviewers-analysts
Subjectivity (analyst's interpretation of collected
Explanatory focus
Use of a wide range of specific research methods and
Small size of statistical sample
Impossibility of dissemination of findings to the
general population.


pros and cons of
qualitative research
Advantages of a qualitative
extremely useful when the
topic is too complex to get a
yes or no answer to the basic
question. Such methods are
much easier to plan and
execute. They are useful
when budgetary decisions
need to be taken into account.
qualitative research include the
implementation the possibilities
of generalization are seriously
limited, that is, with full
confidence one can speak about
the reliability of their results
only in relation to people of a
certain category. The small size
of the definition does not allow
characteristics of the research


advantages and disadvantages of
qualitative research
Advantages of
qualitative methods.
lower running costs
help to reveal hidden
motives of purchases
and behavior of people
allow you to reveal
some characteristics
that are hidden during
quantitative analysis
qualitative research include
the fact that during their
conduct the possibilities of
generalization are seriously
limited - one can confidently
speak about the validity of
their results only in relation
to the participants in a
sample sizes do not provide
a quantitative description of
the results.


Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods: observation, in-depth interview (narrative
interview, semi-structured interview, dialogue interview), focus group, analysis
of personal documents (letters), visual documents (photo, films and videos)
Conducting in-depth and expert interviews is a qualitative research method.
The main difference between qualitative and quantitative methods is that in the
first case, data are collected from a relatively small group of respondents and
are not analyzed using statistics, while when using quantitative methods, a
large group of people is studied, and the data is further analyzed using
statistical methods. .Basically, qualitative research is used to identify a problem
and develop hypotheses. They can also be used as preliminary to quantitative
studies to determine the main indicators. Due to the small size of the sample of
respondents, the results of qualitative studies cannot be generalized to the
entire population. However, they can be extremely useful for studying a
particular issue, evaluating various programs. In addition, qualitative methods
allow, unlike quantitative methods, to reveal the internal motives and
motivations of people.


Qualitative Data Analysis –
What is it About?
Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) is the range of processes
and procedures used on the qualitative data that have
been collected to transform them into some form of
explanation, understanding or interpretation of the
people and situations that are being investigated.
QDA is usually based on an interpretative philosophy.
The intention behind qualitative analysis is to answer the
‘why’, ‘what’ and ‘how’ questions, and to examine the
meaningful and symbolic content of qualitative data.


Qualitative Data Collection
Exploratory in nature, these methods are mainly concerned
at gaining insights and understanding on underlying reasons
and motivations, so they tend to dig deeper. Since they
cannot be quantified, measurability becomes an issue. This
lack of measurability leads to the preference for methods or
tools that are largely unstructured or, in some cases, maybe
structured but only to a very small, limited extent.
Generally, qualitative methods are time-consuming and
expensive to conduct, and so researchers try to lower the
costs incurred by decreasing the sample size or number of


Qualitative Research Design
The design of qualitative research is probably the
most flexible of the various experimental techniques,
encompassing a variety of accepted methods and
structures. Though there is no standardized
structure, this type of study still needs to be carefully
constructed and designed. Researchers need to
continually ensure they are conducting bias-free,
open-ended technique and staying alert to potential
sources of error. This usually involves awareness of
bias and deep sensitivity to the phenomenon in


Main Difference – Ethnography
vs Phenomenology
Ethnography and phenomenology are two detailed,
qualitative studies that are used in the social
sciences. Ethnography is the systematic study of
people and cultures, whereas phenomenology is the
study of the subjective, lived experiences and
perspectives of the participants. The main difference
between ethnography and phenomenology is that
ethnography focuses on the collective experience in a
particular culture whereas phenomenology focuses
on the individual experience.


Example of qualitative
Let's say you're compiling a restaurant feedback survey with the ultimate goal
of identifying and fixing weaknesses in your restaurant. You can ask respondents to
rate how satisfied they are with the service, menu choices, and food quality at your
While this list may seem extensive at first glance, it is possible that a significant
proportion of respondents will be most dissatisfied with issues that you forgot to
include in the survey or considered too minor, such as cleanliness or the
atmosphere in the restaurant. A small amount of qualitative research will allow you
to determine what questions to ask before designing the survey. Without qualitative
In addition, qualitative research will help you determine which specific words
to use to win over respondents. As a restaurateur, you are probably familiar with
the term POS, or point of sale system, but many of your respondents are not
familiar with the term. An initial qualitative study will help clarify which terms
your respondents or clients commonly use and which they will overlook.
English     Русский Правила