Категория: ПсихологияПсихология

Critical Thinking


Chap. 1
Critical Thinking (CT)
CT is the process of thinking clearly, with accuracy and precision;
of thinking carefully, with logic and depth; and of thinking openmindedly, by examining points of view and acknowledging
assumptions and biases within a given viewpoint.
It is the process of assessing opinions.
It refers to a set of skills relating to the recognition, analysis,
evaluation, and construction of arguments.
Critical thinking skills are important because they enable us to
deal effectively with social, scientific, and practical problems, and
all aspects of life .
©2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Critical thinking skills are necessary for:
success in college
success in the workplace
success in the marketplace
living an examined life
Poor critical thinking skills contribute to many life
problems: life struggle, depression, low self-esteem, ..
Clement (1979) stated that - we should be teaching
students how to think. Instead, we are teaching them
what to think.
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What is critical thinking?
What is not critical thinking?
analytical and logical thinking
the examination of accuracy, arguments, calculations,
causes, completeness, concepts, consequences,
consistency, costs and benefits, decisions, fairness,
implications, information, inferences, logic, perceptions,
plausibility, precision, processes, purposes, relationships,
relevance, significance, quality and quantity, questions,
views, etc.
skepticism and awareness
of assumptions, authority, beliefs, bias, common wisdom,
distortion, egocentrism, experts, misinformation,
motivations, prejudice, self-deception, slogans, sources,
proper use of the scientific process*
evaluation (theory disproved or “law”)
* there are many variants of these terms
application of information to solve problems
the use of information, not simple recall
-Is memorization an important
skill ?
-Is it as important as it once
was ?
negativity, cynicism
“ -Critical” does not mean
negative .
-Critical thinkers must have open
minds .
-Skepticism is healthy and can be
productive .
-Cynicism is often destructive .
faith, trust, beliefs
in “experts,” authorities,
government, slogans, symbols,
religion, ideology, family, nation,
etc .
superstition, myths, folk logic,
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Strategies of Critical thinking
(The three underlying strategies are “Reflection, Reasons,
Alternatives” (RRA).
12 Fundamental Strategies
8 Tactics strategies.
And others.
4 main types of critical thinking tools (questions): Getting the
Facts, Evaluating the Facts, Drawing a Conclusion using Logic,
and Evaluating a Conclusion.
©2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


The Elements of Thought
Point of View (frame of reference, perspective, Orientation).
Purpose (goal, objective).
Question at issue (problem, issue).
Information (data, facts, observations, experiences).
Interpretation and inference (conclusions, solutions).
Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles, models).
Assumptions (presupposition, taking for granted).
Implications and Consequences (Used With Sensitivity to Universal
Intellectual Standards).
Clarity --Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example?
Could you illustrate what you mean?
Accuracy -- How could we check on that? How could we find out if that is
true? How could we verify or test that?
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Precision-- Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details?
Could you be more exact?
Relevance --How does that relate to the problem? How does that bear on
the question? How does that help us with the issue?
Depth --What factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the
complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to
deal with?
Breadth --Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need
to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways?
Logic -- Does all this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in
with your last? Does what you say follow from the evidence?
Significance --Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the
central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important?
Fairness-- Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically
representing the viewpoints of others?
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Types of Thinking
1. Critical thinking - This is convergent thinking. It assesses the worth and
validity of something existent. It involves precise, persistent, objective analysis.
When teachers try to get several learners to think convergently, they try to help
them develop common understanding.
2. Creative thinking - This is divergent thinking. It generates something new or
different. It involves having a different idea that works as well or better than
previous ideas.
3. Convergent thinking - This type of thinking is cognitive processing of
information around a common point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different
directions into a union or common conclusion.
4. Divergent thinking - This type of thinking starts from a common point and
moves outward into a variety of perspectives.
5. Inductive thinking - This is the process of reasoning from parts to the whole,
from examples to generalizations.
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Creative Thinking and it’s Tools
Creative thinking is the generation of new ideas within or across
domains of knowledge, drawing upon or intentionally breaking
with established symbolic rules and procedures. It usually
involves the behaviors of preparation, incubation, insight,
evaluation, elaboration, and communication. In the context of
college teaching and learning, creative thinking deliberately and
actively engages students in:
•Bringing together existing ideas into new configurations;
•Developing new properties or possibilities for something that
already exists; and
•Discovering or imagining something entirely new.
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Critical Thinking (left-brain)
Creative Thinking (right brain)
suspended judgment
an answer
left brain
right brain
richness, novelty
yes but
yes and
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Emotional intelligence
EI is involved in the capacity to perceive emotions,
assimilate emotion-related feelings, understand the
information of those emotions, and manage them.
Recognize your emotions, understand what they're
telling you, and realize how your emotions affect people
around you.
By understanding how others feel you will manage them
effectively (at work).
The 4 Components of EI
PERCEIVING EMOTION/ Using them/ Understanding
them/ Managing them.
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Six Thinking Hats - Eduard de Bono
Is a thinking tool for group discussion and individual thinking. Combined with the idea of
parallel thinking which is associated with it, it provides a means for groups to think together
more effectively, and a means to plan thinking processes in a detailed and cohesive way.
The white hat represents for information that is known or needed.
The yellow hat represents values and benefits and why something may work.
The black hat represents judgment: the "devil's advocate" or why something may not work.
The red hat represents feelings, hunches, and intuition.
The green hat represents creativity: possibilities, alternatives, and new ideas.
The blue hat represents management of the thinking process, usually employed by the
chairperson of the meeting.
©2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Powerful Types of Creative Thinking:
mind mapping,
creative flow.
To be discussed later …
©2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Critical thinker
1. Is open-minded and mindful of alternatives
2. Desires to be, and is, well-informed
3. Judges well the credibility of sources
4. Identifies reasons, assumptions, and conclusions
5. Asks appropriate clarifying questions
6. Judges well the quality of an argument, including its reasons,
assumptions, evidence, and their degree of support for the
7. Can well develop and defend a reasonable position regarding
a belief or an action, doing justice to challenges
8. Formulates plausible hypotheses
9. Plans and conducts experiments well
10. Defines terms in a way appropriate for the context
11. Draws conclusions when warranted – but with caution
12. Integrates all of the above aspects of critical thinking
©2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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