Modal Verbs
Modal Verbs
Modal Verbs: Examples
-ing form (Gerund)
-ing form (Gerund)
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Modal verbs

1. Modal Verbs

1. Ability → can (Present); could (Past) – was/were
able to=managed to do sth; will be able to (Future)
2. Possibility →may, might, could
3. Logical assumption/deduction →must (100%+),
may (50/50), could (50/50), might (50/50); can’t
4. Request →can, could, may
5. Advice →should

2. Modal Verbs

6. Obligation/necessity →must (specific occasion; personal
obligations); have to (external obligations, rules, law); will
have to/had to
7. Absence of necessity →won’t/don’t/doesn’t/didn’t have
to/need to; needn’t
8. Prohibition →mustn’t/wasn’t/weren’t allowed to; will
not be allowed to
9. Permission →may, can

3. Modal Verbs: Examples

1. Rachel… (a modal verb of ability) swim very well when she was young.
2. Victor is starting a new job in a month. He’s worried that he … (a modal verb of possibility /
not) like it.
3. George hasn’t arrived yet. He … (a modal verb of logical assumption) have missed the plane.
4. … (a modal verb of request) I take your book, please?
5. You … (a modal verb of advice / not) drink so much coffee. It's unhealthy.
6. She has a chronic disease, so she … (a modal verb of obligation) take lots of medicine.
7. This is not an official meeting. You … (a modal verb of absence of necessity) dress formally.
8. You ... (a modal verb of prohibition) cross the street when the traffic lights are red.

4. -ing form (Gerund)

-As a subject:
Swimming is my favourite sport.
-After verbs: admit (признавать), appreciate (ценить), avoid
(избегать), begin (начинать), consider (рассматривать), continue
(продолжать), deny (отрицать), dislike (не нравиться), enjoy
(наслаждаться), fancy (представить себе), finish (заканчивать),
hate (ненавидеть), imagine, like, love, mind (возражать), miss,
prefer (предпочитать) , prevent (предотвращать), spend, start,
stop, suggest (предложить), waste (time, money)
They enjoy travelling.

5. -ing form (Gerund)

After the verb “go”:
I often go jogging in the mornings.
After prepositions:
She is good at cooking; She accused him of stealing money.
After expressions:
Be busy (быть занятым), it’s no use (бесполезно), it’s (not) worth
(стоит того, чтобы), there’s no point (in) (нет смысла), what’s the
use of (в чем смысл), can’t help (не могу не …), can’t stand (не
выносить), have difficulty (in) (иметь трудности), look forward to
(с нетерпением ожидать чего-либо)

6. To-infinitive

To express purpose:
I bought milk to make ice-cream.
After verbs:
Advise (советовать), agree (соглашаться), ask, decide (решить),
expect (ожидать), explain (объяснить), hope (надеяться), manage
(удаваться), offer (предлагать), plan, promise (обещать), refuse
(отказывать(-ся), seem (казаться), want
I want to buy a new car.

7. To-infinitive

After expressions: be + adjective (happy, nice, sorry, delighted, etc.)
It is nice to be back home.
After too/enough:
It is too late to visit them now.
She is old enough to drive a car.
After would like/would love/would prefer:
I’d love to go to the cinema with you.

8. Examples

1. Liam is saving money … (buy) a new car.
1. Bob tried to avoid … (answer) my question.
2. It was late, so we decided … (take) a taxi
2. Suddenly everybody stopped … (talk). There
was silence.
3. She will be delighted … (invite) you to her
3. You should avoid … (hurt) her feelings.
4. I don’t know how you managed (persuade)
… the bank manager to lend you so much
5. The President has a team of bodyguards
(protect)_____________ him.
4. I usually prefer (drive) … at night when we
go for a long distance.
5. I enjoy (listen)_________________ to
6. They apologized for ... (make) so much
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