Категория: Английский язык
The basics of the English language (lexicology)
1. The basics of the English language (lexicology)Сандалова Н.В
к.ф.н., ст. преп.
каф. английской филологии и
2. Lecture 9-10 – Etymology and borrowingsPlan:
• Native words
• Borrowed words
• Assimilation of borrowings
• Sources and classification of borrowings
• Etymological doublets and International
3. EtymologyОтрасль лингвистики, изучающая
исторические отношения между
словом и более ранними
формами или формой, от которых
(которой) слово гипотетически
4. Etymology of the English Word-stockEtymology (Gr. etymon “truth” + Gr. logos
“learning”) is a branch of linguistics that
studies the origin (происхождение) and
history of words (историю слов), tracing
them to their earliest determinable
source (предпринимая попытки
отследить их до самого раннего
English vocabulary are borrowings
(заимствования). Mostly they are words of
Romanic origin (Latin, French, Italian,
• Borrowed words are different from native
ones by their phonetic structure, by their
morphological structure and also by their
• English history is very rich in different types of
contacts with other countries, that is why it is
very rich in borrowings.
7. The Origins of English WordsEnglish
8. Definitions• A native word (исконное слово) is a word which
belongs to the original English word stock
(оригинальному, самому древнему пласту)
, as known from the earliest available manuscripts of
the Old English period (древне английский
• A borrowed word (a borrowing, or a loan word,
заимствование) is a word taken over from
another language and modified in phonemic
shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to
the standards of the English language (полностью
или частично модифицированное по стандартам
1. kinship terms (термины родства):
mother, father, son, daughter, brother;
2. important objects and phenomena of
nature (самые важные природные
объекты): sun, moon, wind, water,
3. animals and plants (некоторые
растения и животные): goose, wolf,
cow, tree, corn;
4. parts of human body (части тела): ear,
tooth, eye, foot, heart, lip;
qualities (основные прилагательные):
hard, quick, slow, red, white, new;
6. numerals from 1 to a 100
(числительные от 1 до 100): one, two,
7. pronouns (personal, demonstrative,
interrogative (местоимения)): I, you, he,
my, that, who;
8. some of the most frequent words
(наиболее частотные слова): bear, do,
be, sit, stand.
11. Words of the common Germanic origin (слова общегерманские)• These words have parallels in German,
Norwegian, Dutch, Icelandic
• They contain a great number of semantic
groups of which are the same as in the
Indo-European group of native words (к
ним относятся некоторые схожие
категории с индоевропейскими словами):
head, arm, finger;
2. periods of time (времена года):
summer, winter, time, week;
3. natural phenomena (природные
феномены): storm, rain, flood, ice,
ground, sea, earth;
4. artefacts and materials (артефакты и
материалы): bridge, house, shop,
room, coal, iron, lead, cloth;
5. different kinds of garment (одежда):
hat, shirt, shoe;
понятия): care, evil, hope, life, need;
7. animals, birds and plants (растения и
животные): sheep, horse, fox, crow,
8. various notional verbs (глаголы): bake,
burn, drive, buy, hear, keep, learn,
9. adjectives of colour, size, etc
(прилагательные): broad, dead, deaf,
deep, grey, blue;
10. adverbs (наречия): down, out, before.
14. Характеристики исконных слов1. Высокая степень сочетаемости, частотность
2. Развитая семантика, полисемия;
3. Высокий словообразовательный
4. Способность участвовать в создании
15. Исторические причины заимствований
Римское завоевание (1st c. B.C.),
Введение Христианства (7th c. A.D.),
Набеги датчан (11th – 13th c. A.D.),
Норманнское завоевание (1066 A.D.),
Эпоха Возрождения (14th – 16th c. A.D.),
Прямые языковые контакты и политические
культурные и т.д. отношения между
разными странами (современный период)
16. The Etymology of Borrowed Words• Celtic (Кельтские): 5th – 6th A. D.
• Latin (Латинские):
1st layer: 1st c. B. C. (Римское завоевание)
2nd layer: 7th c. A. D. (the introduction of
3rd layer: 14th – 16th c. (the Renaissance
• Scandinavian (скандинавские): 8th – 11th
c. A. D.
17. The Etymology of Borrowed Words• French (Французские):
Norman borrowings: 11th – 13th A. D.
Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance
• Greek: the Renaissance period
• Italian: the Renaissance period and later
• Spanish: the Renaissance period and later
• Russian: the Renaissance period and later
• German, Indian and other languages
derived from native words (they were of the same
root and the connection between them was easily
seen), for example, drop (AS.) – drip (Scand.), true
• Here are some examples of early Scandinavian
borrowings: call (v), take (v), cast (v), die (v), law
(n), husband (n), window (n), ill (adj), loose (adj),
low (adj), weak (adj).
recognisable as Scandinavian borrowings by
the initial sk- combination:
• sky, skill, skin, ski, skirt etc.
20. Пути заимствованияBorrowings enter the language in 2 ways:
1) through oral speech – через устную речь (by
immediate contact between the peoples).
They took place in the early periods (ранние) of
They are usually short (краткие) and undergo
considerable changes in the act of adoption
(наиболее подвержены ассимиляции и часто
неотличимы от исконных слов, не ощущаются
2. through written speech – через письменную
речь (by indirect contact through books, etc.).
They gained importance in recent times (более
They preserve their spelling and some peculiarities
of their sound-form (часто сохраняют
изначальное написание, звучание), their
assimilation is long and laborious process (долго и
22. Классификация заимствований• Borrowings can be classified according
to different criteria:
a) according to the aspect which is
borrowed (аспект заимствования);
b) according to the degree of assimilation
c) according to the language from which the
word was borrowed (язык
23. Первый критерий – аспект заимствованияThere are the following groups:
• phonetic borrowings (loan words proper)
• translation loans (переводные кальки),
• semantic borrowings (семантические
• word coins (производные),
• morphemic borrowings
24. Phonetic borrowings• Самые частотные во всех языках мира,
называются loan words proper
• Слова заимствуются с их написанием,
произношением, значением, проходят
процесс ассимиляции, каждый звук
изначального языка заменяется на
соответствующий звук языка-реципиента)
• Иногда написание полностью меняется,
может меняться также и семантическая
25. Phonetic borrowings• The position of the stress is very often
influenced by the phonetic system of the
borrowing language (перенос ударения по
• The paradigm of the word, sometimes the
meaning of the borrowed word are also
changed (грамматика может меняться).
• labour, travel, table, chair, people
(French); nomenklatura, sputnik
(Russian); bank, soprano (Italian).
26. Translation borrowings (калька)
Words and expressions formed from the
material already existing in the English
language (формируются из
существующих слов) according to
patterns taken from another language (по
моделям другого языка), by way of literal
morpheme-for-morpheme or word-forword translation (пословный или
mother tongue<L. lingua maternal
wall newspaper < Russ. Стенгазета.
27. Semantic borrowing (семантическое заимствование)
It is understood as the development in an English
word (развитие в английском слове нового
значения) of a new meaning under the influence
of a related word in another language (под
влиянием сходного слова другого языка)
e.g. the English word pioneer means ‘explorer’
and ‘one who is among the first in new fields of
activity’. Under influence of the Russian word
пионер it has come to mean ‘a member of the
Young Pioneers’ Organization’.
28. Other types of borrowings• word coins (производные) from Latin and
Greek – are formed to denote new notions
or inventions using Latin or Greek words
• morphemic borrowings – first a number
of words with the morpheme is taken from
another language, then the morpheme
begins to form new words (-able- Latin; ment- French; -ism- Greek).
29. Assimilation of borrowingsdenotes a partial or total confrontation (частичное
или полное влияние) to the phonetical, graphical
and morphological standards of the English
language and its semantic system.
ассимиляции) of borrowings depends on the
a) from what group of languages the word was
borrowed (if the word belongs to the same
group of languages to which the borrowing
language belongs it is assimilated easier) –
принадлежность одной группе = более быстрая
b) in what way the word is borrowed: orally or
in the written form (words borrowed orally are
assimilated quicker) – заимствованные устно
= более быстрая ассимиляция;
depends on the following factors:
c) how often the borrowing is used in the
language (the greater the frequency of its
usage, the quicker it is assimilated) –
частота использования в языке = более
d) how long the word lives in the language
(the longer it lives, the more assimilated it
is) – длительное существование слова в
языке = более быстрая ассимиляция.
32. Degree of Assimilation1) Completely assimilated words
E.g.: wine, window, chair.
2) Partially assimilated words
a. Loan words not assimilated semantically
E.g.: sari, toreador.
b. Loan words not assimilated grammatically
E.g.: formula, index, phenomenon.
c. Loan words not assimilated phonetically or
graphically. E.g.: ballet, buffet, café.
3) Unassimilated (не ассимилированные)
E.g. haute couture. The words from other
languages for which there are corresponding
English equivalents are so-called barbarisms.
• They follow all morphological, phonetical and
orthographic standards (соответствуют
• They take part in word-formation (участвуют
• Their morphological structure and motivation
is transparent (мотивированны).
• They are found in all layers of older
borrowings: cheese (L.), husband (Sc.),
borrowings are not felt as foreign words
in the language (не ощущаются
Completely assimilated verbs belong to
regular verbs: correct – corrected.
Completely assimilated nouns form their
plural by means of s-inflexion: gate –
In completely assimilated French words
the stress has been shifted from the last
syllable to the first one: capital, service.
borrowed words are subdivided into:
a) borrowings not completely assimilated
graphically (не полностью
ассимилированные в графике).
These are words from French, in which the
final consonant is not read: ballet,
buffet; with a diacritic mark: café, cliché;
diagraphs ch, qu, ou, etc.: bouquet,
borrowed words are subdivided into:
b) borrowings not completely assimilated
phonetically (не полностью
ассимилированные в фонетике).
e.g. from French with the stress on the
machine, cartoon, police, bourgeois,
borrowed words are subdivided into:
c) borrowings not completely assimilated
grammatically (не полностью
ассимилированные в грамматике).
e.g., nouns from Latin and Greek keep their
original plural forms:
phenomenon – phenomena;
criterion – criteria.
are subdivided into:
d) borrowings not completely assimilated
semantically because they denote objects
and notions peculiar to the country from
which they come, e.g.
sari, sombrero, rickshaw (Ch), sherbet
39. 3) Unassimilated borrowings or barbarisms (не ассимилированные = варваризмы)are words from other languages used by
English people, e.g.
ciao – ‘good-bye’ or tête-à-tête.
40. Classification of Borrowings according to the language from which they were Borrowed
Romanic (Latin, Greek),
41. Major InfluencesCeltic - the number of celticisms in English is small.
Scandinavian - the years 750 - 1050 are known as
The Viking Age of England. Their influence upon the
language was strong.
• Norman and French - the Norman period lasted
nearly 300 years.
• Latin and Greek
1) The first period of Latin influence was during the
2) The second wave of the influence came with the
3) The third wave dated to the 14th, 15th, and 16th
centuries - the period of New Learning, when
Greek and Latin were established as the main
languages of learning, science, and culture.
42. Minor Influences• Dutch
The contact with the Dutch language was mediated
by the political, commercial, and cultural contacts;
thus the main spheres were maritime terminology
(dock, gin, commodore, etc.), and terminology
of drawing and painting (sketch, landscape).
Main spheres are business (bank, risk,
bankrupt, etc.), music, and architecture.
Spanish, German, Russian, Czech, Indian,
Japanese, Red Indian, etc.
43. Early Influences• Celtic borrowings: A few Celtic words, such
as crag, entered what would become the English
• Latin loans: Roman soldiers and priests came
to the British Isles before the massive invasions
of Northern Europeans.
44. Celtic borrowings• Place names: Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk,
Ux (Celtic “river”, “water”); London
(Llyn “river”+ dun “a fortified hill”) - “a
fortress on the hill over the river”
• cradle, cross, iron, flannel, tweed,
lake (C. loch)
45. Latin borrowings• Among words of Romanic origin borrowed
from Latin during the period when the British
Isles were a part of the Roman Empire, there
are such words as: street, port, wall etc.
46. Latin borrowings• Many Latin and Greek words came into English
during the Adoption of Christianity in the
• At this time the Latin alphabet was borrowed
which ousted the Runic alphabet. These
borrowings are usually called classical
• Here belong Latin words: alter, cross, dean,
and Greek words: church, angel, devil,
47. Latin borrowings• Latin and Greek borrowings appeared in
English during the Middle English period due
to the Great Revival of Learning.
• These are mostly scientific words because
Latin was the language of science at the time.
These words were not used as frequently as the
words of the Old English period, therefore some
of them were partly assimilated grammatically,
e.g. formula - formulae. Here also belong
such words as: memorandum, minimum,
maximum, veto etc.
48. Latin borrowings• Classical borrowings continue to appear in
Modern English as well. Mostly they are words
formed with the help of Latin and Greek
• In medicine (appendicitis, aspirin), in
chemistry (acid, valency), in technique
(engine, antenna, biplane), in politics
(socialism, militarism), names of sciences
(zoology, physics). In philology most of
terms are of Greek origin (homonym,
49. The earliest Latin borrowings (1st c. A.D.)• words denoting things connected with war,
trade, building and domestic life: pound,
inch, cup, kitchen, pepper, butter,
cheese, milk, wine, cherry
50. Latin words borrowed into English through the Christianization of England (7th c. A.D.)• persons, objects and ideas associated with
church and religious rituals: priest, bishop,
monk, nun, candle, temple
• words connected with learning: grammar,
school, scholar, decline, master,
51. Latin borrowings of the Renaissance period (14th – 16th c. A.D.)• abstract words: major, minor, filial,
moderate, intelligent, permanent, to
elect, to create.
52. Scandinavian borrowings• By the end of the Old English period English
underwent a strong influence of
Scandinavian due to the Scandinavian
conquest of the British Isles.
• Scandinavians belonged to the same group of
peoples as Englishmen and their languages
had much in common (много общего).
• As the result of this conquest there are about
700 borrowings from Scandinavian into
53. Scandinavian borrowings• Even some pronouns and connective words
were borrowed which happens very seldom,
such as: same, both, till, fro, though,
pronominal forms with «th»: they, them,
• Scandinavian influenced the development of
phrasal verbs, which did not exist in Old
English (фразовые глаголы).
• Phrasal verbs (фразовые глаголы) are now
highly productive in English /take off,
give in etc/.
54. Scandinavian borrowings (8th - 11th c. A.D.)• Verbs: call, take, cast, die, want
• Nouns: law, egg, husband (Sc. hūs + bōndi
“inhabitant of the house”), window (Sc.
vindauga “the eye of the wind”)
• Adjectives: ill, loose, low, weak
• Pronouns and pronominal forms: they,
their, them, same, both, though.
55. Scandinavian borrowings (place names)• Derby, Tremsby (-by: Sc. “village, town”);
• Zinthorp, Altharp (-thorp: Sc. “village”);
• Eastoft, Nortoft (-toft: Sc. “a plot of land
covered with grass”);
• Troutbeck (-beck: Sc. “brook”);
• Inverness (-ness: Sc. “cape”);
• Applethwait, Crossthwait (-thwait: Sc.
56. Scandinavian borrowings• However there were also many words in the two
languages which were different, and some of
them were borrowed into English,
• such nouns as: bull, cake, egg, kid, knife,
skirt, window etc,
• such adjectives as: flat, ill, happy, low,
odd, ugly, wrong,
• such verbs as : call, die, guess, get, give,
scream and many others.
57. Norman influence• The largest group of borrowings are French
borrowings. Most of them came into English
during the Norman Conquest (норманнское
• French influenced not only the vocabulary of
English but also it’s spelling, because French
scribes wrote documents as the local population
was mainly illiterate, and the ruling class was
French (влияние на правописание).
58. The French Language in England 1066-1200• Norman French is the native language of
the nobility (французский – язык
аристократии, верхушки государства).
• Probably not a great deal of bilingualism
(малая степень билингвизма).
• Small numbers of French loans enter
English (небольшое количество
59. The French Language in England 1200-1300• French is the cultivated, prestige language
• There is a diglossic situation, with French
the high-prestige, English the low-prestige
variety (диглоссия, французский
престижный, английский – нет).
• Large numbers of French loans enter
English (большое количество
60. The French Language in England 1300-1400• English becomes the dominant language,
but French remains dominant in literature
and at the court (английский начинает
• Although the knowledge of French is waning,
its linguistic prestige can be seen by still
increasing numbers of French loans in
English (заимствования продолжаются).
61. The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил):• 1334-1453 The Hundred Years' War with France
(война с Францией).
• 1348-9 The Black Death. 30% mortality. Labour
shortage, wage rises, increasing importance of
the English-speaking classes (эпидемия чумы
= необходимость в трудовом населении
• 1386 English accepted in the courts ('Statute of
Pleading') – признание английского в суде
62. The French Language in England 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the decline of French (почему французский уступил):• Two major English poets at the end of the 14th
– Gower writes mostly in French (but composes
one long work Confessio amantis, in English)
– Chaucer writes almost entirely in English.
• Evidence of private letters:
– 1350: French is the rule.
– After 1400: English becomes common.
– After 1450: English is the rule.
– Расцвет англоязычной культуры и поэзии
63. Norman influence• «v» was introduced for the voiced consonant
/v/ instead of «f» in the intervocal position
/lufian - love/,
• the digraph «ch» was introduced to denote
the sound /ch/ instead of the letter «c» /
chest/ before front vowels where it had
• the digraph «sh» was introduced instead of
the combination «sc» to denote the sound /sh/
64. Norman influence• the digraph «th» was introduced instead of
the Runic letter «ð» /this, thing/,
• the letter «y» was introduced instead of the
Runic letter «3» to denote the sound /j/ /yet/,
• the digraph «qu» substituted the
combination «cw» to denote the combination
of sounds /kw/ /queen/,
65. Norman influence• the digraph «ou» was introduced to denote
the sound /u:/ /house/ (The sound /u:/ was
later on diphthongized and is pronounced
/au/ in native words and fully assimilated
• As it was difficult for French scribes to copy
English texts they substituted the letter «u»
before «v», «m», «n» and the digraph «th» by
the letter «o» to escape the combination of
many vertical lines /«sunu» - «son»,
luvu» - «love»/.
66. Norman borrowings (11th – 13th c. A.D.)• Educational terms: pupil, lesson,
library, science, pen, pencil
• Artistic and literary terms: image,
character, figure, volume, design
• Terms of everyday life: chair, table,
plate, saucer, dinner, supper, breakfast
67. Norman borrowings (11th – 13th c. A.D.)• Government and administration: state,
country, government, parliament,
• Legal terms: court, judge, justice, crime,
• Religious terms: saint, sermon
(проповедь), prayer, parish (приход),
• Military terms: army, war, soldier,
officer, battle, enemy
68. English-French Pairs
69. Parisian borrowings: the Renaissance period and later• regime, routine, police, machine,
ballet, matinée, scene, technique,
English after 1650, mainly through French
literature, but they were not as numerous
and many of them are not completely
• There are the following semantic groups of
belle-lettres, conservatorie, brochure,
nuance, piruette, vaudeville;
b) words relating to military affairs: corps,
echelon, fuselage, manouvre;
c) words relating to buildings and furniture:
entresol, chateau, bureau;
d) words relating to food and cooking: ragout,
72. Italian influence• Cultural and trade relations between Italy
and England brought many Italian words into
• The earliest Italian borrowing came into
English in the 14-th century, it was the word
«bank» /from the Italian «banko» «bench»/. Italian moneylenders and
moneychangers sat in the streets on benches.
73. Italian influence• When they suffered losses they turned over
their benches, it was called «banco rotta»
from which the English word «bankrupt»
• In the 17-th century some geological terms
were borrowed: volcano, granite, bronze,
• At the same time some political terms were
borrowed: manifesto, bulletin.
74. Italian influence• But mostly Italian is famous by its influence
in music and in all Indo-European languages
musical terms were borrowed from
Italian: alto, baritone, basso, tenor,
falsetto, solo, duet, trio, quartet,
quintet, opera, operetta, libretto, piano,
• Among the 20-th century Italian
borrowings we can mention: gazette,
incognito, altostrati, fiasco, fascist,
dilettante, grotesque, graffitto etc.
75. Spanish influence• Spanish borrowings came into English
mainly through its American variant. There
are the following semantic groups of them:
• a) trade terms: cargo, embargo;
• b) names of dances and musical
instruments: tango, rumba, habanera,
• c) names of vegetables and fruit: tomato,
potato, tobacco, cocoa, banana, ananas,
76. The Renaissance period borrowings (14th – 16th c. A.D.)• Italian: piano, violin, opera, alarm,
• Spanish: potato, tomato, cargo,
• Greek: direct (e.g. atom, cycle,
ethics, esthete), or through Latin
(datum, status, phenomenon,
phenomenon, philosophy, method,
77. German borrowings• There are some 800 words borrowed from
German into English.
• Some of them have classical roots, e.g. in
some geological terms, such as: cobalt,
bismuth, zink, quarts, wolfram.
• There were also words denoting objects used
in everyday life which were borrowed from
German: iceberg, lobby, and rucksack,
78. German borrowings• In the period of the Second World War
the following words were borrowed:
Volkssturm, Luftwaffe, SS-man,
Bundeswehr, gestapo, gas chamber
and many others.
• After the Second World War the
following words were borrowed:
79. Holland influence• Holland and England have constant
interrelations for many centuries and
more than 2000 Holland borrowings were
borrowed into English.
• Most of them are nautical terms and
were mainly borrowed in the 14-th
century, such as: freight, skipper,
pump, keel, dock, reef, deck, leak
and many others.
80. Russian influence• There were constant contacts between
England and Russia and they borrowed
words from one language into the other.
• Among early Russian borrowings
there are mainly words connected with
trade relations, such as: rouble,
copeck, pood, sterlet, vodka, sable,
and also words relating to nature, such
as: taiga, tundra, steppe etc.
81. Russian influence• There is also a large group of Russian
borrowings which came into English
through Rushian literature of the 19-th
century, such as: Narodnik, moujik,
duma, zemstvo, volost, ukase etc, and
also words which were formed in
Russian with Latin roots, such as:
nihilist, intelligenzia, Decembrist
82. Russian influence• After the Great October Revolution many
new words appeared in Russian connected
with the new political system, new culture,
and many of them were borrowed into English,
such as: collectivization, udarnik,
Komsomol etc., and also translation loans,
such as: collective farm, five-year plan.
• One more group of Russian borrowings is
connected with perestroika, such as:
glasnost, nomenklatura, etc.
83. Other borrowings• Japanese: karate, judo, hara-kiri,
• Arabic: algebra, algorithm, fakir,
• Turkish: yogurt, kiosk, tulip
• Persian: caravan, shawl, bazaar,
• Eskimo: kayak, igloo, anorak
• Amerindian languages: toboggan,
• Russian: bistro, tsar, balalaika, tundra,
84. Etymological doublets (этимологические дублеты)• Etymological Doublets are the words originated
from the same etymological source, but different in
phonemic shape and in meaning.
The words shirt and skirt etymologically
descend from the same root. Shirt is a native
word, and skirt is a Scandinavian borrowing.
Their phonemic shape is different, but there is a
certain resemblance which reflects their common
origin. There meanings are also different but easily
associated: they both denote articles of clothing.
85. Sources of etymological doublets• Native word + borrowed word: shirt (Eng.) –
skirt (Scand.); shrew (Eng.) – screw (Scand.)
• Both words are borrowed from different
languages which are historically descended
from the same route (из разных языков, но
исторически происходят от одного
• captain (Lat.) – chieftain (French) (вожак,
• senior (Lat.) – sir (French), canal [kə'næl]
(Lat.) – channel (French).
86. Sources (источники) of etymological doublets• Both words are be borrowed from the same
language but in different historical periods (из
одного языка, но в разные исторические
• travel (Norman borrowing) – travail (Parisian
borrowing) (тяжелый труд, работа),
• corpse [kɔ:ps] (Norman borrowing) (труп) –
corps [kɔ:] (Parisian borrowing) (корпус,
87. Sources of etymological doublets• Both words are native, but one of them
originates from the other (оба исконные,
одно происходит от другого):
• history – story,
• phantasy – fancy (иллюзия,
• defence – fence,
• shadow – shade.
88. Latino-French doubletsLatin
English from English from
89. Franco-French doubletsNorman
90. Scandinavian-English doubletsScandinavian
91. Etymological triplets– group of words of common root:
• hospital (L) – hostel (Norm.Fr) –
• to capture (L) – to catch (Norm. Fr) –
to chase (Par. Fr).
92. International words (интернациональные слова)• Words which are borrowed by several
languages (заимствуются в
• They convey concepts which are
significant in the field of communication
(важные аспекты коммуникации).
• Many of them are Latin and Greek origin.
mathematics, physics, chemistry,
biology, medicine, linguistics,
2. Terms of art: music, theatre, drama,
tragedy, comedy, artist, primadonna.
3. Political terms: politics, policy,
democracy, revolution, communism,
4. The English language contributed a
number of international words to world
languages: football, volley-ball,
baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby,
tennis, golf, etc.
exotic countries: coffee, cocoa,
chocolate, coca-cola, banana, mango,
6. International words are often confused with
other words which have the same origin but
have diverged in meaning in different
languages, e.g. extravagance 1) нелепость,
сумасбродство, вздор; блажь; причуды 2)
расточительность; мотовство –
расточительность; accurate – верный,
growing due to the words connected with:
the development of science – automation,
cybernetics, gene; exotic words – kraal,
orang-outang, anaconda; the words in
the field of sport – football, out, match; the
words referring to clothing – sweater,