The classification of the tooth. Direct and Indirect Speech. Sequence of tenses
1. The classification of the tooth. Direct and Indirect Speech. Sequence of tenses.University
Chair of the foreign
The classification of
Direct and Indirect
Speech. Sequence of
by : the student
of 2-009 stom group
Karaganda- Vladimir Venglovskiy
that grow from the jawbone.
Humans and other animals use
their teeth to bite and chew food.
Unlike your brain, your teeth
were not ready to work from the
day you were born. Although
babies start growing their first
teeth before they are born, you
lives. The first set has 20 teeth baby teeth.
When a child is about 6 years old, these
teeth become loose and fall out. Over the
next few years 28 permanent teeth replace
the baby teeth. When a person is around 20,
mammals, are heterodont animals,
meaning that they have several different
forms of teeth. Human teeth
differentiate in shape, while more
primitive animals are homodont and all
their teeth have the same shape
possibly differing only on size.
Permanent human teeth come in four
different types: incisors, canines,
5. Types of teethHuman teeth belong to four distinct types
each having a typical appearance and
performing a certain function. The shape
and morphology of each human tooth type
depends on the function that it is
assigned to perform.
As a species, humans are omnivorous
eating both meats and plants, so they
need different types of teeth to handle
both types of food. Generally, carnivorous
animals need sharp teeth to pierce and
tear meat, while herbivorous animals need
6. IncisorsIncisors (Cutting teeth) are the teeth at
the center of the dental arch. There are
eight incisors in total in the permanent
(and primary) dentition, two on either
side (left and right) in the upper and
lower jaw. The middle four of them (one
at each quadrant) are called central
incisors, while the other four next to
them are named lateral incisors.
Incisors are flat and board, shaped like a
shovel with a narrow straight cutting
edge that enables them to cut food. The
main functions of an incisor in the
7. Canines (cuspids)Canines (also called eye teeth or
cuspids) are the teeth located next to the
incisors towards the edge of the mouth.
There are 4 canines in both primary and
permanent human dentitions, one at each
quadrant of the mouth. They are the third
teeth from the center.
They have a sharp pointed edge that is
used to rip and tear tough foods such as
meat. In humans canine teeth have the
same height as the rest of the teeth but in
other animals they are longer and used
8. Premolars (bicuspids)Premolars (also called bicuspids) are the teeth
located after the canines towards the back of the
mouth. There are eight premolars in the permanent
dentition, two on either side (left and right) in the
upper and lower jaw. The front four of them (one at
each quadrant) are called first premolars, while the
other four on the back are called second premolars.
The premolars are the fourth and fifth teeth from the
midline. Premolars are only present in the permanent
dentition; there are no premolars in the primary
human dentition. When they erupt, they replace the
The morphology of premolars is a combination
between canines and molars. They are also known
as bicuspids, because usually they have at least two
cusps on their upper side. Premolars have a broader
9. MolarsMolars are the teeth located at the back of
the dental arch. Adult humans have
twelve molars, three on either side (left
and right) in the upper and lower jaw.
There are only 8 molars in the primary
dentition which are replaced by the
permanent premolars. Permanent molars
are named as first, second, and third
starting from the front to the back. The
third molars are also known as wisdom
teeth. Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to
erupt behind all other teeth at the age of
17-25 years, much later than the rest. The
crushing and finalizing grinding before
swallowing the food.
The first and second molars have a similar
shape with premolars, but they are larger
(with the first molar larger than the second
one). The mandibular first molars (the one
at the lower jaw) are usually the largest
teeth of the human mouth. They have a
more flattened surface with four to five
cusps, and two to three roots.
The morphology and size of third molars
12. Sequence of TensesThe tense of a verb in the subordinate
clause changes in accordance with the
tense of the verb in the main clause.
in the present or the future tense,
the verb in the subordinate clause
may be in any tense, depending
upon the sense to be expressed.
He says that the tooth aches.
He says that the tooth ached.
He says that the tooth will ache.
He will say that the tooth aches.
He will say that the tooth ached.
past tense, the tense in the subordinate clause
will be in the corresponding past tense.
He said that he would go to the clinic.
He told me that he had been ill.
I knew that he would not recover.
We noticed that the blood had stopped.
• We use may in the subordinate clause when
the main clause is in the present tense. We use
might in the subordinate clause when the main
clause is in the past tense.
I study that I may pass examination in
tense, we do not use future tense in
subordinating clauses beginning with
when, until, before, after etc.
I will call you when the doctor have free
time. (NOT I will call you when the doctor
will have free time.)
I shall wait until the doctor call me. (NOT
I shall wait until the doctor will call me.)
• Expressions such as as if, if only, it is
time and wish that are usually followed
by past tenses.
16. Direct and indirect speech• Direct speech–
Direct speech is
the original or
actual words of
the speaker that
are put in
• Indirect speech–
direct speech into indirect speech.
1. Reporting verb will be changed
according to Reporting speech.
2. Remove the inverted commas,
replace them with an appropriate
3. Change the pronoun according to
shall go to the dentist tomorrow”
Indirect speech-John told me that he
would go to the dentist the next day.
In this example
• Reporting verb said to is converted into
• Conjunction that is used in place of
• Reporting speech’s I is converted into