The structure and function of ATP. The formation of ATP in the aerobic and anaerobic respiration
2. • What is energy? • What energy is producing in animals? • Why do we need energy for living organisms?
What is energy?
What energy is producing in animals?
Why do we need energy for living organisms?
4. The structure and function of ATP. The formation of ATP in the aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
5. Learning objectives•to know the structure and function of ATP
•compare the formation of ATP in the aerobic
and anaerobic respiration
6. Success criteria1.
Know the structure of ATP
Describe the function of ATP
Explain the process of ATP formation
Explain anaerobic and aerobic respiration
Expect the formation of ATP in aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Compare the productivity of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
7. TerminologyATP, adenine, ribose, phosphate, adenosine
triphosphate, ADP and P, AMP, ATP synthetase, cellular
perspiration, aerobic and anaerobic respiration,
mitochondria, energy currency
8. Adenosine TriphosPhate• Adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) is a complex organic
chemical that participates in
many processes. Found in all
forms of life, ATP is often
referred to as the
"molecular unit of
currency" of intracellular
9. ATP• When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts
to either the di- or monophosphates, respectively
ADP and AMP. Other processes regenerate ATP such
that the human body recycles its own body weight
equivalent in ATP each day.
10. ATP structureATP consists of an adenine attached by
the 9-nitrogen atom to the 1′ carbon
atom of a sugar (ribose), which in turn is
attached at the 5′ carbon atom of the
sugar to a triphosphate group. In its
many reactions related to metabolism,
the adenine and sugar groups remain
unchanged, but the triphosphate is
converted to di- and monophosphate,
giving respectively the derivatives ADP
and AMP. The three phosphoric groups
are referred to as the alpha (α), beta (β),
and, for the terminal phosphate, gamma
12. The possible functions of ATP• Intracellular signaling
• DNA and RNA synthesis
• Amino acid activation in protein synthesis
13. The energy produced during respiration is used in many different ways, some examples of what it is used for are:•Working your muscles
•Growth and repair of cells
•Building larger molecules from smaller ones i.e. proteins from amino
•Allowing chemical reactions to take place
•Absorbing molecules in active transport
•Keeping your body temperature constant
•Sending messages along nerves
14. How energy is release?When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, adenosine
diphosphate (ADP) is formed and 30.5 kJmol−1 of energy is released.
Removal of a second phosphate produces adenosine monophosphate
(AMP), and 30.5 kJ mol−1 of energy is again released. Removal of the
last phosphate, leaving adenosine, releases only 14.2 kJ mol−1. In the
past, the bonds attaching the two outer phosphate groups have been
called high-energy bonds, because more energy is released when they
are broken than when the last phosphate is removed.
17. The reactions are all reversible.
18. ATP synthase• The cell’s energyyielding reactions are
linked to ATP
20. ATP, ADP and AMP
23. ATPThe ATP is then used by the cell in all forms of work.
ATP is the universal intermediary molecule between
energy-yielding and energy-requiring reactions used in
a cell, whatever the type of cell. In other words, ATP is
the ‘energy currency’ of the cell. The cell ‘trades’ in
ATP, rather than making use of a number of different
24. What do you know about aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
25. Aerobic Respiration• Aerobic means “with air”. This type of respiration needs oxygen for it
to occur so it is called aerobic respiration. The word equation for
aerobic respiration is
26. The chemical equation is:
27. Aerobic RespirationIn the above equations we see that glucose is broken down by oxygen
to release energy with carbon dioxide and water being produced as
by-products of the reaction. Approximately 2900 kJ of energy is
released when one mole of glucose is broken down. The released
energy is used to make a special energy molecule called Adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). ATP is where the energy is stored for use later on
by the body.
28. Anaerobic RespirationAnaerobic means without air (“an” means without). Sometimes there
is not enough oxygen around for animals and plants to respire, but they
still need energy to survive. Instead they carry out respiration in the
absence of oxygen to produce the energy they require this is called
29. Anaerobic RespirationAs you can see anaerobic respiration is not as efficient as aerobic and
only a small amount of energy is released. This is because glucose can
only be partially broken down. As well as this inefficiency a poisonous
chemical, lactic acid is also produced, if this builds up in the body it
stops the muscles from working and causes a cramp. To rid the body
of lactic acid oxygen is needed, the amount of oxygen required to
break down the lactic acid is referred to as the oxygen debt.
30. Anaerobic Respiration in the plantsThe oxygen supply to plants can also run out, this happens for example
if the soil gets waterlogged. In this case they have to obtain their
energy via anaerobic respiration. Below is the word and chemical
equation for anaerobic respiration in plants:
35. Aerobic RespirationC6H12O6 + 6O2 => 6CO2 +6H2O
+ 38ATP (Energy)
36. Anaerobic RespirationC6H12O6 => 2Ethanol + 2CO2 +
C6H12O6 => 2Lactate + 2ATP