Table tennis
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Table tennis

1. Table tennis

Prepared:Karptasharov Tair


Table tennis (also mistakenly[2] [3] is used
the name ping pong)-Olympic sport, sports
game with a ball in which use rackets and
the game table differentiated by a grid. The
game can take place between two
opponents or two pairs of rivals. The task of
the players is to use the rackets to send the
ball to the opponent's side so that he could
not return it back in accordance with the
rules. The main international tournaments
are the world Cup and the Olympic games.


The game is played on a table with a size of 2.74 × 1.52 m and a height of 76 cm
in the Middle of the table is a grid height of 15.2 cm In the game used racket,
consisting of a wooden base, covered with two plates of bright red and black
colors. The ball for table tennis is made of celluloid or plastic ball diameter just
over 40 mm, weight 2,7 g. the Ball shall be white or orange in color[6].The game
takes place between two players or between two teams of two players. Players
or couples stand at the table in front of each other. A draw of a point is opened
from the pitch, and the ball must be repulsed to the playing half of the
opponent in such a way as to make a return strike impossible[7].


Game history:
For the first time the name "Ping-Pong" began to meet since 1891, and before that in the
course were similar to the intonation of the name: "Flim-Flam", "VIF-WAF", as well as
"Gossima" (Rus.)he.. In 1891, the company Jaques of London (Rus.) English. was
developed and launched in manufacture of a kit for playing "Ping-Pong". The name is
derived from a combination of two sounds: "ping" — the sound produced by the ball
when it hits the racket, and "pong" — when the ball bounces off the table. Later the
name was sold to Parker brothers[8][9][10].Today ping-pong is called an authentic kind
of table tennis, where all players use the same racket with sandpaper, as it was in the
early XX century at the dawn of table tennis[2].


The evolution of the game
In the XIX century.
According to experts, table tennis owes its birth to rainy English weather, which forced
to carry matches of tennis in the room. The first game took place on the floor, and then
began to move the tables. After some time in the second half of the nineteenth century,
the company Jaques of London (Rus.) English. equipment was developed for this home
entertainment, called "Gossima" (Rus.)he.. In a short time "Gossima" gained popularity
in salons of England and in some European countries[9].The first prototype of table
tennis rules was published in 1884 by F. Ayers in London under the title "Miniature
Indoor Lawn Tennis game" [11]. It should be noted that in many sources the year of
publication of these rules wrongly indicated 1834, that is, 40 years before the publication
of the first rules of tennis in 1874[9]. In 1891, CH. Baxter and J. Jackes patented the name
and rules of the game "Ping pong "[12], and from that moment table tennis began to
develop under the name" ping pong " in the direction we know it now[9].


At the end of the XIX century, the inventory for the game was not standardized in any
way, used rackets with long handles, with stretched strings or covered with leather.
Balls were made of different materials, such as cork and rubber, sometimes they were
sheathed with fabric. In 1891, James Gibb brought from America to England hollow
colored balls of celluloid for the children's play and decided to use them to play pingpong. From this moment on celluloid balls were replaced by balls made of other
materials, which in turn led to the changes in racquets. As the ball became lighter,
rackets began to be made of plywood, with the shortened handle, game surfaces began
to paste over such materials as a stopper, parchment, velour[9].


In the twentieth century:
In the XIX century and at the beginning of the XX century for the game used rackets
with a playing plane of smooth wood, that is, without coating, or coated, made of cork,
parchment, velour or other similar materials. With such rackets it was impossible to
carry out a significant part of the attacks, known in modern table tennis, and to conduct
a dynamic game. In 1902 H hood first used a racquet with a layer of porous rubber[9]. In
the first half of the twenties the use of porous rubber was so widespread that all other
types of rackets completely out of use. It became possible to let the ball spin in different
ways. The use of porous rubber rackets allowed the ball to be controlled better, and the
table tennis technique changed. This period lasted until the early 1950s[13].


A little earlier, in 1901, India hosted the official table tennis tournament, experts
consider it the first international competition[9][14].In 1926 at the meeting of
representatives of Austria, England, Hungary, Germany, Denmark, India,
Czechoslovakia, Sweden and Wales the international table tennis Federation was
established, and in the same year the first world table tennis championship took
place[9].In 1936, for the first time there was a restriction on the duration of the match.
Due to the fact that then prevailed protective style of play, the matches are very much
delayed in time, so the match of the three parties began to allocate 1 hour, and the match
of the five parties — 1 hour 45 minutes. In 1937, we reduced the height of the grid from
17 cm to 15.25 cm, and introduced the rule of feeding only with an open palm[9].From
1940 to 1946 world Championships in table tennis is not conducted in connection with
the Second world war[9].In the early 1950-ies was invented sponge covering the
paddles. In Europe, it was first used in Austria by Fritch in 1951, but it was a single case
that did not lead to changes in the game[15].


In 1952, the Japanese athlete Hiroji Sato, who became the champion, used a
sponge-coated racket at the world championship in Bombay[16]. The Japanese
national team for the first time participated in the world Cup and due to its
rapid attacking tactics have won many medals, among which was a gold medal
in the individual competition. From that date, the rubber-sponge rackets began
to spread across Europe, which became the world table tennis center[15].
However, the new racket cover did not make table tennis more attractive sport.
The impact of the ball on a thick layer of sponge rubber gave him greater
speed, and to reflect such an attack was very difficult. Thus, the game is almost
reduced to cut, and final strike. The main thing in the competition was the
power, and the game equipment was relegated to the background, which led to
a fall in the popularity of table tennis. In 1959, the use of spongy rubber rackets
was prohibited[15].


In the XXI century:
At the beginning of the 21st century, for the first time in a long time, there were a
number of significant changes in the rules. Until 2000 played ball with a diameter of 38
mm, but after the Olympic games 2000 in Sydney in the use of was introduced balls
with a diameter of 40 mm. of the Reasons for the increase in size of a few. First of all, the
larger ball is best seen during TV broadcasts. In addition, the ball of large size has a
lower speed due to greater air resistance, and this simplifies refereeing and contributes
to greater entertainment of the game[19].In 2001, the number of points required to score
victory in the party changed from 21 to 11, and changing the flow side started to happen
not after 5 draws, and 2 after. Also, in this regard, the number of games in the match
was increased from 5 to 7 at the world's largest competitions. For the first time under
these new rules the 2001 world Cup in Osaka was held[19]. Shorter games increased the
overall intensity of the game and made the matches more spectacular.
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