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International Flights into Space: Intercosmos


International Flights
into Space:
Milana Kovalenko
From 6V
School №5
Teacher: E.S.Kolesnikova


In July and September in 1976 in Moscow representatives of
the Republic of Cuba
discussed and approved the new Soviet initiative -"Intercosmos" program.
It was agreed that the cosmonauts of all the socialist countries - participants of the
"Intercosmos" program would take part in flights to the Soviet spacecraft and orbital
stations in conjunction with the Soviet cosmonauts in the period from 1978 to 1983


The international cooperation
in five key areas began :
- Space physics ;
- Space meteorology ;
- Space biology and medicine ;
- Space communication ;
- The study of the Earth's natural resources.


The first international flight from the Baikonur Cosmodrome
on the board of the manned spacecraft " Soyuz- 28 " :
.Alexey Gubarev and Vladimír Remek Chehoslovakiya
Flight duration
- 7 days 22 hours 16 minutes 00 seconds
from 2 to 10 March 1978
During the flight the ship " Soyuz- 28 " docked with the orbital station
" Salyut- 6 " . Remek and Gubarev , together with the crew of the station ,
Yuri Romanenko and Georgi Grechko conducted a number of
technological and biomedical experiments.


Pyotr Klimuk and
Miroslav Germashevsky
7 days 22 hours 02 minutes 59
seconds from 27 June to 5 July 1978
Flight program : the program of complex medical examinations ,
complex circulatory system examination using equipment " polynomial -2M ", "
Rheograph - 2 " and " Beta 3 " ,
made ​registration rheogram , ECG and other factors ,
medical experiment " Kardiolider ",
conducting an experiment "Earth" to explore the natural resources of our planet.
Peter and Miroslav Klimuk Germashevsky conducted medical experiments and
experiment "Leisure" , the purpose of which was to study human adaptation to the
new environment of life .


Valery Bykovsky and
Sigmund Jahn
- 7 days 20 hours 49 minutes 04 seconds
from 26 August to 3 September 1978
Flight Program : experiment , observation and photographing clouds in the Antarctic
region , an experiment in " Berolina " space materials ( the ancient name of Berlin ) .
It was held in the mode of gravitational stabilization of the orbital complex .
Valery Bykovsky and Sigmund Jahn conducted an experiment in the field of space
biology - " tissue culture " . In this experiment they found out the impact of space
flight on the physiology and the structural organization of the mammalian cells.
They studied the Earth's natural resources by using multispectral camera MKF- 6M
and visual and instrumental studies using handheld cameras (experiment
"Biosphere" ) .


Nikolai Rukavishnikov and
Georgy Ivanov
-1 day 23 hours 01 minutes 06 seconds
from 10 to 12 April 1979
The docking with the station was canceled because of a failure
of the main engine of the ship.
When the distance between devices were less than four kilometers , the astronauts
noticed a deviation from the regular convergence mode : the speed of convergence
between the spacecraft and the station was higher than estimated , and traffic control
system included rendezvous - corrective propulsion system that worked abnormally .
Docking was impossible.


Valery Kubasov and
Bertalan Farkas
- 7 days 20 hours 45 minutes 44 seconds
from 26 May to 3 June 1980
Joint work program " The experiment”, " interferon " and " Study of the distribution of
trace contaminants in the atmosphere of the main zones of the station.
The experiment “Dose “ included radiation research on the space station for a longer
period of time .
The Hungarian astronaut brought some products of Hungarian science and industry to
the space station : a miniature dosimeters " Pille " ( " Butterfly " ) , interferon drugs that
provide viral immunity and a device " Balaton " , designed to identify mental health of an
astronaut and to carry out 32 different measurements.


Viktor Gorbatko and
Pham Tuan
- 7 days 20 hours 42 minutes 00 seconds
from 23 to 31 July 1980
For a week of their work on the station the SovietVietnamese crew carried out a major research program .
They made six types of maps of observations of the natural
environment of Vietnam.
Viktor Gorbatko and Pham Tuan grew a sample of pure
semiconductor crystals in microgravity and conducted a
number of medical and biological experiments .


Yury Romanenko and
Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez
- 7 days 20 hours 43 minutes 24 seconds
from 18 to 26 September 1980
The program of joint activities of Romanenko and A. Tamayo Mendez includes
researches in various fields of science .
The first scientific experiment for the crew began with the research in the field of space
medicine. They studied the circulatory system reaction in the initial period of adaptation
in weightlessness .
They studied the effects of weightlessness on intracellular processes and a definition of
the functional state of the central nervous system in space flight .
A significant part of the work of the international crew was devoted to geophysical
surveys . They studied the changes of human sensory functions in the acute period of
adaptation . The experiment was carried out before the flight , in orbit and after returning
to the Earth .


Vladimir Janibekov and
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa
- 7 days 20 hours 42 minutes 03 seconds
from 22 to 30 March 1981
Joint work program included an experiment " collar " which purpose was to study
the development of " motion sickness " .
The purpose of " Chatsargana " experiment was to study
the influence of the drug made ​from sea buckthorn
on lipid and vitamin metabolism.
A medical experiment "Neptune" helped
to study in-depth eyes’ ability .


Leonid Popov and
Dumitru Prunariu
- 7 days 20 hours 41 minutes 52 seconds
from 14 to 22 May 1981
The program of joint activities :
A medical experiment "Information" studied the influence of specific factors of space
flight on human mental activity .
An experiment " Nanovesy " , prepared by the Romanian specialists together with
Soviet engineers measured the reduction of the thin silicon dioxide film mass by
sublimation in a vacuum .
In the experiment "Immunity " , developed by Soviet and Romanian specialists , the
effects of space flight on the biologically active substances were examined .


On the spacecraft "Soyuz" and orbital station " Salyut- 6 " there were nine
international crews ( the Soviet cosmonauts with citizens of Czechoslovakia ,
Poland , East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam , Cuba , Mongolia ,
Romania ) .
By the end of the fifth flight the Expedition station " Salyut- 6 " had been in the
space for three years and eight months .
Five major expeditions worked on the station and it was visited by eleven
expeditions .
The total duration of their flights was 676 days .
During the flight of the orbital complex " Salyut- 6 " - "Soyuz" 1000 experiments
were performed .
The astronauts carried out researches and experiments in many fields of
science and technology .


A list of resources::
1. http://astronaut.ru/as_interk/as_interk.htm
2. «Техника-молодежи» 1979 №10, с.34-35www.technicamolodezhi.ru
3. Брайан; Hellemans, Александр (2004). История науки и техники: справочник
браузера по большим открытиям, изобретениям, и людям,
которые сделали их, с рассвета времени к сегодня.
Нью-Йорк: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 679
4. http://ksodr.narod.ru/st014.htm
5. http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/246368
6. http://www.sovkos.ru/cosmicheskie-apparaty/sputnik-interkosmos.html
7. - Наука и человечество. 1975. Сборник - М.: Знание, 1974.
8. http://www.gctc.ru/print.php?id=235
9. http://star-799.ucoz.ru/index/interkosmos/0-38
10. http://knowledge.su/i/interkosmos
11. Полеты по программе «Интеркосмос» Козырев В.И. Никитин С.А. Научнообразовательная статья. 1980 г. с.16
12. http://aviastory.com.ua/ru/kosmonavtika/56/589-programa-qinterkosmosq
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