Категория: Английский язык
English verb phrase
1. ENGLISH VERB PHRASE
2. What is are verbs?A verb is a "doing" word. A verb can express:
A physical action (e.g., to swim, to write, to climb).
A mental action (e.g., to think, to guess, to consider).
A state of being (e.g., to be, to exist, to appear).
3. What are phrases?A phrase is a syntactic structure that consists of more than one word but lacks
the subject-predicate organization of a clause.
A noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun.
Our friends have bought a house in the village.
Those houses are very expensive.
A verb phrase is just a main verb [MV]or a main verb plus any modal and/or
auxiliary verb [MO].
We all [MV] laughed.
Computers [MO] can [MV] be very annoying!
House prices [MO] could [MV] fall during the next six
4. Simple verb phrase& Complex verb phraseSimple verb phrase& Complex verb phrase
A simple verb phrase consists of a main verb. The verb in a
simple verb phrase shows the type of clause (e.g. declarative,
Your camera takes fantastic pictures. (present simple, declarative
Dress smartly. Arrive on time. (imperative clauses)
A complex verb phrase may include one modal verb and one or
more auxiliary verbs before the main verb. A modal verb always
comes before any auxiliary verbs:
(mo = modal verb; aux = auxiliary verb; mv = main verb)
You [MO]may [AUX]have [MV]played this game before.
(modal verb + one auxiliary verb)
The work [MO]should [AUX]have [AUX]been [MV]finished by
30 January. (modal verb + two auxiliary verbs)
5. Classification of VerbsRegular and Irregular Verbs
A regular verb is one that forms its simple
past tense and its past participle by adding –
ed or -d to the base form of the verb
(Compare love, hate, move/ tell, bleed, see)
6. Classification of VerbsAction Verbs and Stative/State Verbs
An action verb expresses an activity that a person or thing can do.
A stative/ state verb expresses a state rather than an action. A
stative verb typically relates to a state of being, a thought, or an
Lee eats cake. (Eating is something Lee can do.)
The bear chased the salmon in the shallow rapids. (Chasing is
something the bear can do.)
Compare those verbs with these:
Lee likes cake. (To like is not an activity. It's a state.)
The bear is hungry. (To be is not an activity. It's a state.)
7. Classification of VerbsTransitive Verbs and Intransitive Verbs
A transitive verb is one that acts on something (i.e., it has a direct object).
I saw the dog. (Here, the direct object is the dog.)
Lee ate the pie. (Here, the direct object is the pie.)
The postman will give Sarah the letter. (Here, the direct object is the letter.)
An intransitive verb is one that does not act on something (i.e., there is no direct
The rain fell.
My throat hurts.
The cat sneezed.
8. Classification of VerbsAuxiliary Verbs ( BE, HAVE, DO)- pomocná
An auxiliary verb (or helping verb) accompanies a main verb to help
express tense, voice or mood.
BE- is added to other verbs to make progressive and passive forms.
DO- is used to make questions, negatives and emphatic forms of
HAVE- is used to make perfect forms.
Lee has eaten all the pies. (Here, the auxiliary verb has helps to express
The table has been prepared. (Here, the auxiliary verbs has been help
to express voice (in this case, the passive voice).)
If he were to arrive in the next 10 minutes, we would be on schedule.
(Here, the auxiliary verbs were and would help to express mood (in this
case, the subjunctive mood).)
9. Classification of VerbsCopular verbs (sponová slovesa)
They join an adjective or noun complement to a subject.
Common copular verbs are: seem, be, appear, look,
sound, smell, taste, feel, become, get.
That car looks fast. The stew smells good. She became a
He spoke intelligently./ He looks intelligent.
Isabel suddenly appeared in the doorway./ The problem
10. Classification of VerbsSome copular verbs are used to talk about change- become,
get, grow, go, turn, stay, remain, keep.
It´s growing colder.
How does she stay so young?
The leaves are going brown.
11. Classification of VerbsModal Verb
A modal verb is a type of auxiliary verb used to express ideas such as
ability, possibility, permission, and obligation. The modal auxiliary
verbs are can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will,
Lee can eat a lot of pies. (Here, the modal verb can helps to express the
idea of ability.)
Lee might eat that pie before he gets home. (Here, the modal verb might
helps to express the idea of possibility.)
Lee may eat as many pies as he likes. (Here, the modal verb may helps to
express the idea of permission.)
Lee should give you some of that pie given you bought it. (Here, the
modal verb should helps to express the idea of obligation.)
12. Classification of VerbsPhrasal Verb
A phrasal verb is a verb made up of more than one word
(usually two words). A phrasal verb has a main verb and
another word (either a preposition or a particle). The
phrasal verb usually has a meaning different to the main
verb. For example:
A burglar will often break a window to break in. (Here, the
phrasal verb break in means to enter illegally, which is
different to break.)
If you drop the baton the team will drop back to last place.
(Here, the phrasal verb drop back means to fall behind,
which is different to drop.)
13. Verb CategoriesPERSON (osoba)- 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd
NUMBER (číslo) singular or plural
TENSE (čas) present / past/ future
ASPECT (vid) simple/ progressive/ perfect or
MOOD (způsob) indicative/ imperative/
VOICE (rod slovesný!) passive or active
14. Finite verb phrasescan occur as the verb phrase of independent clause
(clause- a group of words that includes a subject
and a predicate)
have tense contrast (the distinction between
present and past tenses)
express person and number concord
15. Finite verb phrasessimple- He works hard. He worked hard. Work harder! It
is important that he work hard.
complex- four basic types of construction in a complex
Type A (modal+ the base of a verb)
Type B (the auxiliary HAVE + the past participle of a verb)
Type C (the auxiliary BE+ the present participle of a verb)
Type D (the
auxiliary BE+ the past participle)
16. Nonfinite verb phraseshave no tense and mood distinction
cannot occur in construction with a subject of a main
express types B, C, D
include infinitives and ING forms (participles and
Type B – to have examined (infinitive), having examined
Type C- to be examining (infinitive), (being) examining
Type BD- to have been examined (infinitive), having been
What are verbs?
What types of verbs are there in English?
Name verb categories.
I was writing a letter to Jill when the phone
Can´t he speak Czech?