1. LUGANSK STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Infectious disease POLIOMYELITISTeacher: Madam Nele
2. What is Polio• Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a highly contagious viral infection
• It can lead to paralysis, breathing problems, or even death
• The term poliomyelitis is from the Greek poliós meaning
"grey", myelósreferencing the spinal cord, and -itis
• Polio can be classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic
• About 95% of all cases display no symptoms (asymptomatic polio),
and between 4% and 8% of cases display symptoms
• Symptomatic polio can be broken down further into a mild form
called nonparalytic or abortive polio and a severe form called
paralytic polio (occurring in 0.1% to 2% of cases).
3. Paralytic polio also may be classified as:• Spinal polio - attacks motor neurons in the spinal cord and causes paralysis
in arms and legs and breathing problems
• Bulbar polio - affects neurons responsible for sight, vision, taste,
swallowing, and breathing
• Bulbospinal polio - both spinal and bulbar polio
• Many people with nonparalytic polio are able to make a full recovery,
while those with paralytic polio generally end up with permanent
• Polio used to be a big killer.
• Today (September 2012) polio has been eradicated in all but three
countries worldwide - Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan, according to
the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the United Nations
4. Who gets polio?• Like many other infectious diseases, polio victims tend to be some
of the most vulnerable members of the population.
• This includes the very young, pregnant women, and those with
immune systems that are substantially weakened by other medical
• Anyone who has not been immunized against polio is especially
susceptible to contracting the infection.
• Additional risk factors for polio include traveling to places where
polio is endemic or widespread, living with someone infected with
polio, working in a laboratory where live poliovirus is kept, and
having your tonsils removed
5. The Patient who got Poliomyelitis
6. History• The development of effective vaccines against polio in the 1950s and 1960s
led to their widespread use in many industrialized countries, including the
United States, and resulted in the elimination of polio in a number of
countries; these early successes suggested that global polio eradication
(through the use of mass immunization campaigns) might be achievable.
• Soon thereafter, in 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the GPEI –
constituted as a public-private partnership led by national governments
and spearheaded by the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary
International, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – to work
toward this goal.
• GPEI partners have invested approximately $11.8 billion globally in
eradicating the disease.If the eradication of polio were achieved by 2018,
it has been estimated that the GPEI will have saved the world $40 to $50
billion from 1988 through 2035.
9. Epidermiology• Polio is caused by the poliovirus, a highly contagious virus
specific to humans.
• The virus usually enters the environment in the feces of
someone who is infected.
• In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads through
the fecal-oral route, via contaminated water or food.
• In addition, direct contact with a person infected with the
virus can cause polio.
11. Symptoms of polio• Polio, in its most debilitating forms, displays symptoms such as paralysis and
• However, most people with polio don't actually display any symptoms or
become noticeably sick. When symptoms do appear, there are differences
depending on the type of polio.
• Nonparalytic polio (abortive poliomyelitis) leads to flu-like symptoms that
last for a few days or weeks, such as fever, sore throat, headache,
vomiting, fatigue, back and neck pain, arm and leg stiffness, muscle
tenderness, muscle spasms, and meningitis.
• Paralytic polio will often begin with symptoms similar to nonparalytic polio,
but will progress to more serious symptoms such as a loss of muscle reflexes,
severe muscle pain and spasms, and loose or floppy limbs that is often
worse on one side of the body.
12. Diagnosis of polio• Polio is often recognized because of symptoms such as
neck and back stiffness, abnormal reflexes, and trouble
with swallowing and breathing.
• A physician who suspects polio will perform laboratory
tests that check for poliovirus using throat secretions,
stool samples, or cerebrospinal fluid.
13. Risk factors
14. Treatments for polio• There is no cure for polio once a person becomes infected.
• Therefore, treatments are focused on increasing comfort, managing
symptoms, and preventing complications.
• This may include providing bed rest, antibiotics for additional infections,
pain killers, ventilators to help breathing, physiotherapy and moderate
exercise, and a proper diet.
• One treatment for lung paralysis due to polio was to place the patient into
an iron lung - a device that would push and pull chest muscles to make them
• However, more modern portable ventilators and jacket-type ventilators are
15. Prevention• Although polio essentially has been eradicated in the US since 1979 and in the Western
Hemisphere since 1991, children and adults in Afghanistan, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan
are still contending with the disease. There are two vaccines available to fight polio inactivated poliovirus (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV).
• IPV, which consists of a series of injections beginning two months after birth and
continuing until a child is 4 to 6 years old, is provided to most children in the United
States. The vaccine is created from inactive poliovirus, but it is very safe and effective
and cannot cause polio.
• OPV is created from a weakened or attenuated form of poliovirus, and it is the vaccine
of choice in many countries because of its low cost, ease of administration, and ability
to provide excellent immunity in the intestine. OPV, however, has been known to
revert to a dangerous form of poliovirus that is able to paralyze its victim.
• Polio vaccinations or boosters are highly recommended in anyone who is not vaccinated
or is unsure if she is vaccinated.