Vitamins. Classes of Vitamins
1. VitaminsMINISTRY EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
KAZAKH – TURKUSH UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF NATURAL SCIENCE
CHAIR OF ECOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY
The theme of the seminar:
Teacher of discipline: Nurdillaeva R.
Prepared by: Asan Asel
Specialty cipher: 5B011200 – Chemistry
2. VitaminsPeople need vitamins to stay healthy.
They get them from the food. There
are a lot of vitamins in fruit and
3. Classes of VitaminsFat Soluble Vitamins:
stored in tissues
Water Soluble Vitamins:
not stored in tissues, must have
B, B1, B2, B6 & B12
5.Function, Deficiency Signs & Sources
Function: development healthy skin and nerve tissue.
Aids in building up resistance to infection. Functions in
eyesight and bone formation. ALL ANIMALS require a
source of Vitamin A. It is important in the ration of
Deficiency signs: retarded growth in the young, the
development of a peculiar condition around the eyes
known as Xerophthalmia, night blindness and
Sources: whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod
fish and tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically
6.It is in green and yellow vegetables, milk
and eggs. Its necessary for eyesight.
Function: is essential for the proper utilization of
calcium and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy
Deficiency signs: retarded growth, misshapen bones
(rickets), lameness and osteoporosis.
Sources: Whole milk, sun-cured hays, forage crops,
fish liver oils, irradiated yeast.
8. Vitamin DIt is in eggs. People can get it from
sunlight. It makes our bones strong.
9.Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Function: has an effect on the metabolism of calcium in
the body (Not required in rations of farm animals.).
Deficiency signs: none demonstrated in livestock.
Human deficiency: scurvy (swollen and painful joints
and bleeding gums) and brittleness of bones.
Sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables and
10. Vitamin CIt is in every fruit and vegetable. You can find
it in black currants, strawberry, oranges,
onions, cabbage and green pepper. It is
important for building bones and teeth. It
helps to prevent colds.
Function: normal reproduction.
Deficiency signs: poor growth, "crazy chick" disease,
Muscular Dystrophy, "white muscle" disease in
ruminants and swine and "stiff lamb" disease (affects
the nerves and muscles).
Sources: synthetic for poultry and swine, cereal grains
and wheat germ oil, green forages, protein
concentrates, oil seeds (peanut and soybean oil).
Vitamin E rapidly destroyed in rancid or spoiled fats.
That is why these may cause white muscle disease.
Utilization of Vitamin E is dependent on adequate
12. Vitamin EIt is necessary for skin and body. It is in
the wheat and nuts.
Function: necessary for the maintenance of normal
Deficiency signs: blood loses its power to clot or the
time needed for clotting is longer and serious
hemorrhages can result from slight wounds or bruises.
Sources: green leafy forages, fish meal, liver,
soybeans, rumen and intestinal synthesis, and the
14. Vitamin KIt is in cabbage, wheat, fruit –
bananas, kiwi and avocado.
15.Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
Function: required for the normal metabolism of
Deficiency signs: loss of appetite, muscular weakness,
severe nervous disorders, general weakness and wasting
Sources: raw, whole grains and especially their seed
coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk
and rumen synthesis.
16. Vitamin B1It is in meat, porridge and bread. It is
responsible for the nervous system. Lack
of this vitamin leads to serious illnesses
and even death.
17.Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Function: necessary for normal embryo development,
important in the metabolism of amino acids and
Deficiency signs: poor reproduction characterized by
small litters and deformed young (cleft palate and clubfootedness) curly toe paralysis in chicks, digestive
disturbances, general weakness and eye abnormalities.
Sources: milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green
forages, well cured hay (especially alfalfa), whole grains,
wheat bran and synthetic riboflavin rumen synthesis.
18. Vitamin B2
20. Vitamin B6
It is in fish, meat, cabbage, tomatoes,
potatoes, nuts, pepper , mushrooms,
carrots and greenery.
21. Vitamin BVitamin B12
It is in eggs, chicken , milk products,
wheat, fish and oysters.
Nutrients: chemical substances in food that are
used by the body to produce energy and
essential organic nutrients, required in
small amounts, that cannot be synthesized
by the body. Required for growth,
maintenance, reproduction and lactation.
Vitamin deficiency: decline in health due to the lack of
a vitamin in a ration.
Fat soluble vitamin: a vitamin that can be stored and
accumulated in the liver and other fatty tissues.
Water soluble vitamin: a vitamin that cannot be stored
in the tissues. Must be provided regularly as
deficiencies can develop in a short time.
essential inorganic compounds, required in
small amounts. Required for growth,
maintenance, reproduction and lactation.
required in large amounts.
required in small amounts.
24.Remember: you eat to live,
but don’t live to eat.
Choose healthy food.
25. So, to keep healthy, we should:1. First of all to eat useful food full of
2. To eat more fruits and vegetables,
especially apples and kiwi: “An apple a
day, keeps the doctor away.”;
3. To go in for sport: to swim, to play tennis,
to play football, to ski and skate;
4. To go to fitness centres and sports clubs;
5. Not to eat fat food: hamburgers, chips,
crisps and cakes.