Категория: Английский языкАнглийский язык

Research should extend to the whole front of phenomena in which language takes part


Zvegentsev V.A.- Research should extend to the whole
front of phenomena in which language takes part
Chomsky N – There are several reasons why language
is and will be especially Important for studying the
nature of man. One is that language is the true
property of man as a species, inherent in its main
Further, the language decisively participates in
thought, action and social relations. Finally, the
language is relatively accessible for study. "


•Philology is a set of sciences that studies the
culture of the people, expressed in language
and literature.
•Philological research is necessary, based on
the connection of philology with other allied


•It is stipulated that random discoveries are
known to science, but only a carefully planned
and scientifically provided research can deeply
learn the laws in nature and in society.
•Traditionally, the following consists of three
- At the first stage, choose a problem and a topic,
determine the object of research, formulate goals
and tasks, develop a hypothesis.


- At the second stage, research methods,
methods of work are selected, the hypothesis is
checked, the research itself is carried out and
preliminary conclusions are formulated.
- The third stage consists of the introduction of
the results obtained into practice and the
presentation of the work done.


• The specificity of philological research is that
something is being investigated that is somehow
related to the text. Text, especially literary, is both a
part of culture, and its product, and the basis.
Philological research is structurally subject to the basic
algorithm. The differences in the realization of the
scheme depend on the paradigm of the scientific
discipline, the experience of the researcher and on
many surrounding circumstances. Below we will
consider current methods of philological research, each
of which can be used both single and in a complex of
other methods.


• Intuition in Philology
• In scientific and cognitive activity, a special place is
occupied by the intuition of the scientist, which, it can be
assumed, rests on the personal and collective unconscious,
as well as on various forms of implicit knowledge.
• In Jung, in particular, there is a discussion of intuition in its
relation to sensation, feeling and thinking. Intuition is an
irrational function. It is a "premonition", "... is not the result
of deliberate action, it is rather an involuntary event,
depending on various internal and external circumstances,
but not an act of judgment"


• Scientific method
• The scientific method of research is a set of basic methods
of obtaining new knowledge and methods of solving
problems within the framework of any science. The method
includes methods of investigating phenomena,
systematizing, correcting new and previously acquired
knowledge. Inferences and conclusions are made with the
help of rules and principles of reasoning on the basis of
empirical (observable and measurable) data about the
object. The basis for obtaining data are observations and
experiments. To explain the observed facts, hypotheses are
put forward and theories are based on which conclusions
and assumptions are formulated. The received expectations
are checked by experiment or collection of new facts.


• An important aspect of the scientific method, its integral
part for any science, is the requirement of objectivity,
which excludes subjective interpretation of the results.
Any statements should not be accepted on faith, even if
they come from authoritative scientists. To ensure
independent verification, documentation of observations
is made, accessibility to all scientists of all initial data,
techniques and research results is ensured. This allows
not only to obtain additional confirmation by
reproducing the experiments, but also to critically assess
the degree of adequacy (validity) of the experiments and
results towards the theory being tested.


Composition analysis
Analysis of the language tools peculiar to such types of text as:
reasoning, narrative, description. In this case, the form of
linguistic analysis will be effective, in which the
communication situation, the structural and compositional
parts of the text, and the linguistic resources will be considered
in interrelation.
The composition is understood widely: not only as a
construction of a work, but also as a dynamic unfolding and
changing of types of speech, speech styles, verbal series. The
composition combines the form and content of the text. With
the help of compositional analysis, the principles of the layout
of the material are studied, compositional text plans, semantic
centers are singled out, the layout of the episodes is described,
and compositional techniques are studied.


• Motivational analysis
• A particular method involving the study of motifs in one or
more of the author's texts, the consideration of recurrent
motifs in literature of a certain direction.
• The motif is studied as a stable component of the literary
text, endowed with semantic saturation, repeatability.
Examples: the motif of the snowstorm in A.S. Pushkin, the
motif of the road in N.V. Gogol.
• The essence of the motive analysis is that for the unit of
analysis, not traditional terms-words, sentences are taken,
but motifs which main property is that they, being crosslevel units, are repeated, varying and intertwining with
other motives in the text, creating its unique poetics.


•Linguistic experiment
•One of the types of linguistic analysis of the text,
whereby one of the linguistic means is arbitrarily
replaced by a synonymous means. At the same time,
the stylistic possibilities of each synonym are
revealed. At one time, the development of the method
of linguistic experiment was studied by L.V.
Shcherba. In the works of A.M. Peshkovskiy much
attention was paid to the stylistic experiment based on
the artificial coming up of stylistic variants to the text.
The initial unity of the analysis, according to A.M.
Peshkovsky, is the text.


•For example, observations on synonyms should be
made only in the text and only through experiment.
•"It would be absolutely absurd if the teacher
suddenly threw a series of synonyms (beautiful, nice,
wonderful or look, watch, see, gaze) and forcing
them to think over them on the basis of their common
language memories . The purpose of the experiment
is, in doing so, an in-depth understanding of the text,
and not the assimilation precisely of these
synonyms, which would be immeasurably drier and
more boring for the student "


• Biographical method
• A private method aimed at considering the biography and
personality of the author, in which both the biography and the
personality are considered as a specific moment of oeuvre /э:vә
творчество, труды писателя/ . The biographical method
involves studying the writer's life on the basis of acquaintance
with memoirs about him, analyzing autobiography, researching
diaries, notebooks, epistolary heritage, various archival
materials, author's forewords and afterwords, speeches and
interviews, poetic declarations, critical articles and essays.
• Biographical method is based on the assumption that behind
each text is the author's personality, so this method allowsthe
researcher to better understand the creations of the word


• Semiotic method
• Consideration of the text as a system of signs. Significant point is the
delineation within semiotics of semantics, syntagmatics and
pragmatics of signs. The semiotic method is associated with modeling
the text as a sign system.
• Yu.M. Lotman, who developed a structural-semiotic concept, when
analyzing the text, distinguished:
• 1) the functional-semantic type of speech reflected in the text;
• 2) segmentation of the text into segments and analysis of the
• 3) level-by-level detailed study of text units;
• 4) analysis of rhymes;
• 5) generalization of observations, concretization of literary meaning.


• Intertextual analysis
• A method that involves studying the intertextual
interaction, revealing the role of allusions, precedent
texts, quotations, etc. in the expression of the conceptual
meaning of the secondary text on the basis of its
connection with the source text. The following stages of
intertextual analysis can be distinguished: 1)
identification of aesthetic signals of "foreign" in the text
under consideration; 2) determination of their status; 3)
systematization; 4) analysis of links with the source text;
5) study of possible semantic transformations and
functions in the text under study.


• Discourse analysis
• One of the research methods in modern linguistics, focused on the
description of the reality of speech activity.
• Discourse in the context of linguistic research is a measurement of the text
taken as a chain / set of utterances (ie, as a process and result of a speech
(communicative) act) that involves within itself the syntagmatic and
paradigmatic relations between formal elements forming the system and
reveals pragmatic ideological attitudes subject of utterance, limiting the
potential inexhaustibility of the meanings of the text.
• Discourse in wide sense is a communicative event that occurs between the
speaker, the hearer (observer, etc.) in the process of communicative action
in a certain time, spatial, and other context. This communicative action can
be verbal, written, verbal and non-verbal. Typical examples - everyday
conversation with a friend, a dialogue between a doctor and a patient,
reading a newspaper.


• The Narrative Method
• The method is used by representatives of the school of narratology
(narrative theory). Work of art appears as an aesthetic communication
between the narrator (narrator) and the recipient (reader). The narratologic
method of investigation occupies an intermediate place between the
structural and the receptive-aesthetic. The central concept of the research
method is the deep structure of the work.
The main stages of narratologic analysis.
1. Identification of the communicative nature of a literary work.
2. The idea of an act of artistic creativity as a multi-level narrative process.
3. Identification of various discourses.
4. Theoretical substantiation of numerous narrative instances.


• Representatives of narratology proceed from the fact that the
communicative nature of a literary work presupposes the presence of:
• - a communication circuit, including the information sender;
• - communication (communication) of the author of the work (lit. text);
• - recipient of the message (reader).
• The communication is of a character character, requiring the prior
encoding of the text characters by the sender. It is very important to
relate the communication to the non-literary reality. Narratologists
believe that the work in their formal parameters is not exhausted by the
• If we proceed from the definition introduced by the formalists that the
plot is what is told in the work, and the plot - as it is told, then the
concept of the plot is not enough to define the work.


• Narratologists distinguish two aspects of the plot:
• 1) the formal structure of the narrative, concerning the method of
giving and distributing narrative events (strictly chronological or
anchronological exposition of facts and situations) of time, space and
• 2) submission of this formal structure in terms of direct or indirect
dialogue between the writer and the reader (dialogism - intertext).


• Content analysis
• Quantitative analysis of texts and text arrays for the purpose of the subsequent
meaningful interpretation of the revealed numerical regularities.
• Content analysis is primarily a quantitative method that involves a numerical
evaluation of some components of the text, which can also be supplemented by
various qualitative classifications and the identification of certain structural patterns.
Therefore, the most successful definition of content analysis is that recorded in the
relatively recent book of Mannheim and Rich: the content analysis is a systematic
numerical processing, evaluation and interpretation of the form and content of the
information source.
• From the point of view of linguists and experts in computer science, content analysis
is a typical example of applied informational analysis of text, resolving into
extracting of some specific components of researcher’s interest from whole variety
of available information and presenting them in a form convenient for perception
and subsequent analysis. Numerous specific variants of content analysis differ
depending on what these components are and what exactly is meant by the text.


• The method of "concrete literature studies”
• The basis of such text analysis was a technique called " concrete
literature studies " by DS. Likhachev. The core of that method is that
the literary work extends beyond the limits of the text. It is perceived
against the background of reality and in connection with it. City and
nature, historical events and realities of everyday life - all this is
included in the work, without which it can not be properly perceived.
Reality is like a commentary to a work, its explanation. The most fullblooded and concrete perception of the past is through art and most of
all through literature.
• Literature is also most clearly perceived with knowledge of the past and
reality. There are no clear boundaries between literature and reality.


• Analysis of research methods in philology shows that
philology has sufficient tools for conducting complex
studies – methods and techniques. However, in general,
the theory of philological methods, as well as their order,
lag behind the practice of their usage. But, nevertheless,
a combination of methods and techniques allows us to
say that the philological study of the text assumes an
appeal to the linguistic and literary side in the process of
researching the object, both to the text and to the various
kinds of homo loquens - as the speaker , writer, author,
reader, interpreter, etc., which is usually done in the
context of time and space.


• Literary methods of investigation
• 1. Choice of the research method
• In the Introduction to the course paper, bachelor's, thesis, master's thesis it is
necessary to formulate the methodological reason of the research. In the theory
of literary studies it is necessary to distinguish between methodology and
method. Methodology is the science of methods: about their historical and
timeless essence, ideological, social, axiological (evaluation) orientation, that
is, the methodology has a general philosophical, systematic, general scientific
character: it unites literary science with other sciences and with the sphere of
cognition in general.
• In the XX and XXI centuries. the methodology of the humanities is closely
related and interacts with the methodology of natural and exact sciences
(biology, genetics, mathematics, computer science), which contributes to the
development of new literary methods. On the other hand, the disappointment
in the cognitive possibilities of man transforming the world in the second half
of the 20th century.


• ("Epistemological uncertainty") led some scholars to deny the
methodology and any methods of cognition, replacing them with
spontaneity and intuitive perception (the idea of "methodological
anarchism" in PK Fierabende's book "Against the Method," 1975).
Today the concepts of methodology and method are in the process of
active and meaningful discussions. The method (here the Greek
methodus is the pursuit, the path) of research is a tool for the
philological analysis of texts of literary works and their semantic
structures that are not introduced by this or that ideological fashion, but
are objectively inherent in the text. The method is developed
historically, theoretically, empirically (in the process of practice).


• Literary methods are aimed at studying a work taken either in
relationships and relations with the environment (biographical, literary,
historical, cultural, historical, sociological, structural-semiotic,
psychological, historical poetics) or outside of this context (formal,
structural, theoretical poetics). None of the research literary methods is
universal, only a combination of methods contributes to a multifaceted
approach to the object of interpretation. In students’ works the
following methods are most acceptable: hermeneutic, historical and
theoretical poetics, cultural-historical, biographical, ritualmythological, sociological, semiotic, comparative, psychological,


• 2. Biographical method
• The earliest method of literary studies is the biographical method. It is
aimed at studying the relationship "author-work", in which the author
is a living, concrete person. In the biographical method, the writer's
biography and personality are considered as defining moments of
oeuvre. The founder of the method is Sh. Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869).
He believed that the writer, and thus his work, is influenced by the
family (mother, brothers, sisters), the environment, religious views,
social position, attitude to nature, vice, weakness, illness, which is
generally fair.


• This method today is indispensable in the creation of a
literary portrait, essay, essay. He is involved in the
research of writing behavior (dandyism, Orphism,
Mozartianism, asceticism, wanderings, messianism,
etc.), self-sufficiency of the author's creative
personality of the word, etc. The biographical method
influenced on the emergence of a psychological
method and a cultural-historical method.


• The cultural-historical method arises on the basis of a historical
approach to literature and culture. The method treats literature as
imprinting the spirit of the people in different periods of its historical
life. Researchers are interested in the links of literary work with
civilization, its spiritual and material culture (in a broad sense), with a
historical tradition and social environment. One of the creators of the
method is the French philosopher, historian, literary critic I.-A. Teng
(1828-1893). He developed the key concepts of the method - race,
environment, moment. According to Tan, first of all, the type of person,
formed in a certain society and reflected in the literature, should be
investigated. This "type" is formed by the race (hereditary features of
the national character), the environment (geography, climate, space,
nature), the moment (concrete historical, social, spiritual events of the
era). Thus, the method studies the evolution of the literary process
through the prism of the spiritual national character.


• In Russian literary criticism, the method was developed in the works of
A.N. Pypin .
• The modern literary science hermeneutics speaks about the validity of
the use of multiple methods of investigation Hermeneutics is the
philosophical and aesthetic theory of the interpretation of the text and
the science of understanding the meaning of the work. The function of
interpretation is to teach how to understand a work of art according to
its absolute literary value. Hermeneutics originates in antiquity, namely
in methods of interpreting the Bible and the oldest texts of culture.
Leading theorists of hermeneutics are German scholars of the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. FDE Schleiermacher and W.
Dilthey. Modern Germanic science as a science was developed by the
German scientist H.G. Gadamer and American scientist E.D. Hirsch.


• The leading principles of hermeneutics are:
• the principle of dialogicality: the spiritual life, concentrated in the
work, is determined by the ties connecting the author and us, the
interpreters, with the tradition;
• the principle of emotionality: interpretation is impossible without the
ability to feel aesthetic pleasure from communicating with the
phenomenon of literature;
• contextual and culturological principle: mastering the "life of the
spirit" is due to immersion in a certain cultural and historical tradition,
without which interpretation is impossible;


• the principle of selectivity: the hermeneutic experience, taking into
account tradition, also takes into account the historical distance
separating the writer and the reader (the interpreter);
• the principle of integrity: in the comprehension of a work, a connection
is made between the understanding of its parts through the whole and
the whole through the understanding of parts. Such a connection
Dilthey called the hermeneutic circle;
• the principle of variability: the hermeneutic circle in its continuity and
continuity testifies to the possibility of multiple interpretations of the
same work;
• the principle of personal approach and tolerance: the interpreter must
acknowledge the authority of the author of the work, and also proceed
from his own ethical and aesthetic principles, but must be free in
choosing the goal, context, conventions of the theoretical language of


• the principle of unity of form and content: the analysis of the work is
completed not by the search for a commonality between form and
content, but by the establishment of personal understanding between the
literary work and the reader [37].
• Thus, a literary work is a fact of culture, in the interpretation it is
necessary to reconstruct the place of the work in the spiritual history of
• The method takes into account both the subjective individuality of the
interpreter, and the objective situation of the time of writing, the
influence of traditions and cultural context, which in general gives the
possibility of constantly updated, but adequate perception of the text.
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