International and Comparative Education
What is academic writing?
Planning for your writing task
Structuring the course paper
American Psychological Association (APA) Style
Note: We strongly recommend the use of APA for consistency. - APA publication manual style -Harvard style -Chicago manual style -etc. Consistency is important! Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing
The Basics of APA Style Formatting your paper
Why do I need to make references?
Some basics in referencing
Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words
Paraphrasing Exercise
Paraphrasing Exercise: Possible Answer
Citing an Author or Authors
Referencing (contd.)
Referencing (contd.)
Reference List
Group Activity: Reference Listing
Thank you! Acknowledgement Dr. Mikiko Cars
Категория: ОбразованиеОбразование

International and Comparative Education. Academic Writing

1. International and Comparative Education

Masters’s Degree Program 2016-2018
Autumn Semester 2016 Course
International and Comparative Education
Small Group Seminar 1
Academic Writing:
Writing a course paper
September 2016
Institute of International Education
Stockholm University

2. What is academic writing?

Academic writing differs from other types of writing such as journalistic or
creative writing.
• An academic argument appeals to logic and provides evidence in support
of an intellectual position
• Present your arguments in logical order and to arrive at conclusions
• In academic writing, writers always interact with each others’ texts and so
there will be frequent references to the ideas, thinking or research of other
authors writing in this field
• give credit to those with whom you are interacting and there are
structured guidelines for referencing and citation
• the author takes a critical approach to the material being explored (Crème
& Lea,
& Borg,
Academic Writing
and Citation2008)
Support (2016)

3. Planning for your writing task

• Preparing to write
Analyze the assignment
Choose a topic
Write an outline
• Start writing
Factor in time to gather, absorb and plan your arguments before composing text
Formulate clear aim/objectives of the paper
Intertextuality: Making connections between texts and putting forward your own
• After finalizing the assignment
Go through the assignment for fine-tuning (formatting, language check etc.)
Source: Dr. Mikiko
Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing

4. Structuring the course paper

An example
• A course paper can/should be structured including the following with (sub) headings numbered. Each paper should develop
detailed (sub) headings
Title page
Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations
List of Tables/Figures
Main text may include (page numbers to be inserted)
1. Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.3 Method
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Limitations of the Study
2. Key concepts and/or theories
3. Presentation of the results
4. Analysis/Discussion
5. Concluding Remarks or Summary
6. Reference list for the literature used
7. Appendix
Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing
The Course Paper should be within
3000-4000 words

5. Discussion

1. Discuss your preliminary idea of a course paper topic.
2. What do you find most difficult concerning writing a course paper

6. Remember………

1. Academic writing is based on analysis, which aims to contribute to scholarly
.Re-confirming existing theory, developing new theory, critical analysis of
existing theory
2. Consistency following rules, rigid structure
.Efficient communication of scientific findings to the broader community of
scientists in a uniform manner
3. Plagiarism (use of other words and ideas without citation) is unethical
4. Structure logical sentences and avoid using colloquial language

7. American Psychological Association (APA) Style

APA Style was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing
APA Style is used for
• term papers
• research reports
• emperical studies
• literature reviews
• theoretical articles
• methodological articles and
• case studies
Resources on
Learning resources:
Includes links to free tutorials
Free tutorials
The Basics of APA Style
Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing

8. Note: We strongly recommend the use of APA for consistency. - APA publication manual style -Harvard style -Chicago manual style -etc. Consistency is important! Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing


9. The Basics of APA Style Formatting your paper

• 12 point, Times New Roman or similar font
• 1 inch margins, 1 1/2 inch for the left hand margin (Journal
submissions call for 1 inch margins all around)
• Number pages consecutively
• Indent the first line of each paragraph by five spaces (tab button)
Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing

10. Why do I need to make references?

Reading, understanding and correctly referencing the work of others in your assignments is
By referencing correctly you will:
• Protect yourself against accusations of plagiarism
• Demonstrate that you have read widely
• Show your understanding of a topic
• Support you arguments with published research
• Fosters RESPECT for collegial knowledge
• If you do not reference correctly you may commit plagiarism, which is seen as an academic
misconduct and subjects you to penalities.
Source: Dr. Mikiko Cars (2014) Lecture Series on Academic Writing

11. Some basics in referencing

• Quotations
• Citations
• Paraphrasing
• Summarizing
• Secondary references

12. Quotations

• Short quotations: If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication,
and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes
the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses .
• Note: In course papers there should really only be one long quotation .
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Long quotations: Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines,
and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same
place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any
subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The
parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style,
especially when it was their first time citing
sources. This difficulty could be attributed to
the fact that many students failed to purchase
a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

13. Paraphrasing

• Presenting an idea or argument in your own words
• Ensure it is significantly altered from the original to avoid issues of plagiarism
(just changing a couple of words is not enough)
• Paraphrases relate to specific sections of a work, so it is a good practice to include
the page number as you would do with a direct quotation
Effectively preparing patients by dealing with questions, setting goals and making the patient
feel involved in their care can significantly reduce postoperative anxiety and may have a
positive impact on their subsequent recovery (Lees, 2010, p.11).

14. Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words

A paraphrase is...
• your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else,
presented in a new form.
• one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow
from a source.
• a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single
main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
• it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
• it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
• the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full
meaning of the original
Source: /

15. Paraphrasing Exercise

• "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun
is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our
climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water
around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the
tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our
atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now
threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau," Audubon
(May 1990):17.

16. Paraphrasing Exercise: Possible Answer

According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in Antarctica is
jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that controls the earth's
climate. He fears that human activity could interfere with the balance
between the sun, the source of the earth's heat, and the important source
of cold from Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the oceans and
atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17).
Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab, 2016

17. Citing an Author or Authors

• A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...
(Wegener & Petty, 1994)
• A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite
the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)
• In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)
• Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order
them the same way they appear in the reference list (viz., alphabetically), separated by a semi-colon.
(Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
• Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the
same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case
letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that...
Source: 10/6/16
Purdue Online Writing Lab, 2016

18. Referencing (contd.)

• Citing Indirect Sources
If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list
and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original
• Electronic Sources
If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Kenneth (2000) explained...
• Sources Without Page Numbers
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an
electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs
are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in
some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.
According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).
Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.
Source: Purdue Online
Writing Lab, 2016

19. Referencing (contd.)

• Article From an Online Periodical
Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue
number in parentheses.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if
available). Retrieved from
• Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved
• Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or
Retrieved from
section number).
• Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).
Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:
Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab, 2016

20. Reference List

• At the end of your work include a list of references
• List in alphabetical order by author, do not separate into different types of work
• List only the material you have cited directly in your assignment
Bibliography. Lists all the material you have read, whether cited in your assignment or not.

21. Group Activity: Reference Listing

There is at least one mistake in every entry. Correct them and check your answers.
1. Brett, P. 1994. A genre analysis of the results sections of sociology articles. English for Specific Purposes, 13, 47-59.
Bridgeman, B., & Carlson, S. B. Survey of academic writing tasks. Written Communication, 1, 247-280.
Campbell, A. F. (1983). Organise your English. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Clyne, M. (1983). Culture and discourse structure. In Smith L. E.(Ed.), Readings in English as an international language (pp. 163-167). London:
Prentice Hall.
Collinson, D. J. (1982). Writing English. Wildwood House.
Dudley-Evans, A. (1984). "A preliminary investigation of the writing of dissertation titles". In G.
James (Ed.), The ESP classroom: Methodology, materials and expectations (pp. 40-46). Exeter: University of Exeter.
Cookson, L. (1984). Writing. London: Hutchinson.
Grellet, F. (1981). Developing reading skills. Cambridge.
Hamp-Lyons, L. & K. B. Courter (1984). Research matters. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.
Hamp-Lyons, L. & Heasley, B. (1987). Study writing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.comAmerican
Dietetic Association. (2004). Home Page. Retrieved June16, 2004.
Fitzgibbon, M. and Stolley, M. (2000, December). Minority women: The untold story. In
NOVA Online: Dying to be thin. Retrieved June 27, 2004,
Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab, 2016


Academic Writing and Citation Support (2016) APA Exercise Reference List Tru Libraries Retrieved from
Fitzmaurice, M &O’Farrell, C (n.d.) Developing your academic writing skills: A Handbook Academic Practice & eLearning
Trinity College Dublin Retrieved from
Purdue Online Writing Lab (2016) APA Style Retrieved from

23. Thank you! Acknowledgement Dr. Mikiko Cars

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