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One of the greatest chemists and physicists of our history - Faraday


One of the greatest chemists and physicists of our
history - Faraday
(September 22, 1791 - August 25, 1867)


Michael Faraday
Michael was born September 22, 1791 in
Nyungton Buttes (now Greater London). His
father was a wealthy blacksmith from the London
suburbs. Kuznetsov was his older brother, Robert,
is strongly encouraged Michael thrust for
knowledge and at first supported him financially.
Faraday's mother, hardworking and uneducated
woman, lived to the time when her son has
achieved success and recognition, and rightly
proud of it. The modest family income did not
allow Michael to finish even high school, with
thirteen years he began working as a supplier of
books and newspapers, and then at age 14, went to
work in a bookshop, where he studied
bookbinding and crafts. Seven years of work in a
workshop on Blandford Street began to boys and
years of intense self-education. All this time,
Faraday worked hard


An important stage in the life of
Faraday began classes at the City
Philosophical Society, where Michael
in the evenings listening to popular
science lectures on physics and
astronomy, and participated in the
debates. Money (shilling to pay for
each lecture) he received from his
brother. The lectures Faraday, new
acquaintances, he wrote many letters
to develop a clear and concise writing
style; He also tried to master the
techniques of oratory.


Drawing attention to the young man's thirst for science in 1812, one of the
visitors bookbinding workshop, a member of the Royal Society of London
Deno, gave him a ticket for the public lectures of the famous physicist and
chemist, discoverer of many chemical elements H. Davy at the Royal
Institution. Michael not only listened with interest, but also recorded in
detail and interwoven four lectures that are sent along with a letter to
Professor Davy asking him to take a job at the Royal Institute. This "bold
step and naive", in the words of Faraday had on his fate decisive
influence. The professor was surprised by the extensive knowledge of the
young men, but at the time the institute had no vacancies, and the request
was granted to Michael only a few months. In 1813 Davy (not without
some hesitation) invited Faraday's laboratory for a seat in the chemical
laboratory of the Royal Institute, where he worked for many years. At the
beginning of this work in the autumn of the same year, together with the
professor and his wife, he made a long journey through the scientific
centers of Europe (1813-1815 gg.). This trip was for Faraday great
importance: he and Davy visited a number of laboratories, where he met
with many prominent scientists of that time, including A. Ampere, M.
Chevrel, JL Gay-Lussac and A. Volta, which in turn, drew attention to the
brilliance of the young Englishman


Research began in the field of chemistry. Engaged (1815-1818 gg.), Chemical
analysis of limestone, with a view to improving the quality of steel, iron alloys
studied, studied the effect of different additives on the quality of the steel. First
he received (1824) in liquid chlorine, and then hydrogen sulfide, carbon
dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. I got in liquid form as arsenic, iodide,
bromide and phosphine, ethylene. He opened (1825), benzene, and studied its
physical and chemical properties of some. He opened (1825) isobutylene. Got
(1826)? a- and b- naphthalene sulfonic acids and their salts prepared 15. He
laid the foundation (1826) study of natural rubber. It showed the possibility of
photochemical chlorination of ethylene in the 15 years before the
implementation of JB Dumas A. metalepsii opening reaction. One of the
pioneers of the study of catalytic reactions. I tried to synthesize the (1825) of
ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen, the action of potassium hydroxide in
the presence of metals. Considered the adsorption on the surface of solid
catalysts as a purely physical phenomenon. For the first time I received (1828)
etilsernuyu acid by reaction of ethylene and sulfuric acid. Conducted work
(1824-1830 gg.) To improve the quality of optical glass. Proposed heavy lead
glass, with which discovered the phenomenon of magnetic rotation of the
polarization plane. Set (1833) quantified the laws of electrolysis. His enormous
contribution to the field of physics. He conducted research on
electromagnetism. The creator of the electromagnetic field exercises.
Introduced the concept of the dielectric constant.


The first
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