Кср 2. Methods of lexicological analysis
1. КСР 2 Methods of Lexicological Analysis
3. List of Terms:contrastive
4. The process of scientific investigation may be subdivided into several stages:1. observation (the
collection of data)
2. classification (orderly
arrangement of the data
5. Example: English nouns-er is added to verbal stems (speak
+ -er), noun stems (village + -er),
the same morpheme in mother,
father. But they haven’t a suffix
-er can be found in derived and
formulation of a
hypothesis, rule, or
7. Example: The rule:derived nouns in -er may have
either verbal or noun stems.
The suffix -er in combination
with adjectival or adverbial
(bigger, longer are not nouns).
evidence of the
correctness of the
are the result of the
9. Various methods of lexicological research are used for classification, generalization and verification:Various methods of
lexicological research are
used for classification,
1. Contrastive analysis.
2. Statistical methods of analysis.
3. Immediate Constituents analysis.
4. Distributional analysis.
5. Transformational analysis.
6. Componential analysis.
or that particular
depends on the goal
set before the
13. The aim of the contrastive analysis:a detailed
comparison of the
structure of a native
and a target language
14. Contrastive analysis can be carried out at three linguistic levels:phonology
the basis of teaching
foreign languages: it helps
to foresee and prevent
recurrent mistakes caused
by the interference of the
learner‘s mother tongue.
news, money, hair
generally applied to reveal
the features of sameness
and difference in the lexical
meaning and the semantic
structure of correlated
words in different
clock and часы
Head: the head of a
person, bed or match; in
Russian different words have
to be used: голова
кровати, сторона монеты
20. The aim of the statistical analysis:the
quantitative evaluation of the
material (different structural types
of words, affixes, vocabularies of
great writers, etc.)
the selection of vocabulary items
of a foreign language for teaching
can be observed only if
the phenomena under
analysis are sufficiently
Constituents is based on
the idea that combinations
structured into hierarchial
24. The aim of the Immediate Constituents analysis:1. to find out the
of lexical units
25. Friendliness:1. is divided into the component
friendly-, occurring in such words
as friendly, friendly-looking, and
the component ness- as in darkness, happy-ness.
2. is divided into friend- and -ly
which are ultimate constituents
(cannot be divided into smaller meaningful
26. The aim of the Immediate Constituents analysis:2. to determine the
ways in which lexical
units are relevantly
related to one another
27. a black dress in severe stylea black dress | in
a + black + dress|in +
severe + style
28. Immediate Constituents analysis depends on the meaning of the whole complex: fat major’s wife ?fat
major’s | wife
| major’s wife
position which linguistic
units may occupy in the
flow of speech, or the cooccurrence of units of the
same level: words to words,
morpheme to morphemes
31. The aim of the distributional analysis:the
investigation of sameness
/ difference of meaning of
words and word-groups
the analysis of wordformation.
meanings in different
treat smb kindly (treat + N
+ Adv) – to behave towards;
to treat smb to ice-cream
(treat + N + to + N) – to supply
with smth at one’s own expense.
33. The boy__________ home.the missing word is easily
identified as a verb (came,
went, goes, etc.), but not
as an adverb or a noun, or
35. Transformational analysis:repatterning
structures in order to
discover difference or
sameness of their meaning.
36. Example of transformation:his work is excellent –
his excellent work –
the excellence of his
he works excellently
37. The aim of the transformational analysis:to
patterns (e.g. compounds which
have the same pattern (n + n)
may have different lexical
meanings: dogfight – a fight
between dogs; dogcart – a cart
drawn by dogs)
linguists proceed from the
assumption that the
denotational component of
word meaning can be seen as a
complex cluster of smaller
units - semantic components,
or semes organized in a
boy as [+HUMAN] [–ADULT]
woman as [+HUMAN] [+ADULT]
girl as [+HUMAN] [–ADULT] and
the meanings should be
represented first of all in the
dictionaries of different types
and how the words should be
combined in order to make
your speech sensible.
42. List of Literature:1. Воробей, А. Н. Глоссарий лингвистических
терминов / А. Н. Воробей, Е. Г. Карапетова. –
Барановичи : УО "БарГУ", 2004. – 108 с.
2. Лексикология английского языка : учебник
для ин-тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. / Р. З.
Гинзбург [и др.] ; под общ. ред. Р. З.
Гинзбург. – 2-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Высш.
школа, 1979. – С. 234–261.
3. Лещева, Л. М. Слова в английском языке.
английского языка : учебник для студ. фак-в
и отдел. английского языка (на англ. яз.) / Л.
М. Лещева. – Минск : Академия управления
при Президенте Республики Беларусь, 2001.
– С. 42–44, 64.