Marine pollution prevention
Marine Pollution Prevention
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V.Ships Training Module
Produced by : A-Tech Data Ltd.
What materials are discharged into the sea as a result of human activities ?
What is the effect on the marine environment ?
What is the implication on human health, food resources and ecosystems ?
What is being done to reduce these effects to the Marine environment ?
What is the consequence of not releasing these additives in the marine environment?
The principle content of marine pollution :
Untreated urban sewage ~ river runoffs,
Industrial wastage, residue, agricultural waste, food processing waste etc,
PARTICULATE pollution (e.g) dredging spoil, powdered ash, china clay
Oil Pollution, Plastics and Garbage.
3. What is Marine Pollution ?Marine Pollution
What is Marine Pollution ?
The United Nations Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of
Marine Pollution have defined Marine Pollution as :
“The introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances to
the marine environment that result in deleterious effects to the
these include :Hazards to human health
Hindrance of marine activities, including fishing
Impairment of the quality for the use of seawater
Reduction of amenities.
Other Categories of Marine Pollutants
Hydrocarbon based waste which is bio-degradable
Acids and Alkalis
5. OPA 90 RequiresMarine Pollution
OPA 90 Requires
OPA 90 ~ The Oil Pollution Act 1990
"All Vessels carrying oil in bulk as a
cargo into United States waters must
have an approved Vessel Response
Plan (VRP) on board"
Tonnage of Oil Lost by Marine Casualty
1967 1974 1976 1978 1979 1983 1988 1989 1991 1992
Now watch the Video
"On Board Pollution response"
(The Maritime Safety Series)
8. Oil Pollution Act 1990 OPA90Marine Pollution
Oil Pollution Act 1990
The Vessel Response Plan (VRP)
Key elements :•General Information
• Spill mitigation procedures
The Qualified Individual (Q.I.)
The Spill Management Team (SMT)
The Oil Spill Removal Organisation (OSRO)
• Training & Drills
• Reviews and updates
• Geographic references
• Vessel specific information
12 Nautical Miles
50 Nautical Miles
National Response Corporation
'NARCO' - National Response Corporation
River / Canal
Inland / Offshore
Offshore / Open Ocean
Contractor recovery capacity in US BBls (0.159 m3) per day
NARCO has been classified by the US Coast Guard as an "E" with
responsibility in all operational areas of all zones on the East and Gulf
Coasts of the United States and Caribbean.
Potential Oil Spill Size
Three categories of Potential spill sizes :
Average Most Probable (AMP)
Discharge +/- 50 Bbls
Maiximum Most Probable (MMP)
Discharge +/- 2500 Bbls
Loss of entire Cargo
Shipboard requirements of the VRP
A Designated Spill Response Team (SRT)
List and location of pollution prevention and clean up gear
Contact information and procedures
Location of vessels plans and stability information
Cargo details, including capacities and structure
Cargo transfer procedures
Details of Ship to ship transfer procedures
Masters Obligations to report
In the event of a discharge or threat of a discharge of oil
from the vessel, the U.S.C.G. operated NRC (National
Response Centre) in Washington DC should be notified
by the ship immediately.
Failure to make such notification will make the
Master personally liable to criminal prosecution of
US $ 25,000 or 5 years in Prison.
Shipboard Response Team
Spill Squad 1
Spill Squad 2
Routine in-service training
Damage Stability and Hull Stress considerations
Cargo Transfer procedures
Internal Fuel or Cargo Transfers
Safety procedures – company requirements
Notification and communications with correct personnel
Ship to Ship Cargo / Fuel transfers
Company safety management guidelines
OCIMF / ICS transfer guidelines
Emergency Towing Arrangements
IMO Res. A535 (13) Sections 2.2 to 2.7
• Towing positions
• Identify and gain familiarisation with equipment
• Identify the correct towing equipment
• Ensure emergency towing equipment not used for general purpose
If vessel is disabled and requires towing
• Establish communications
• Agree towing plan
• Prepare equipment and establish continuous watch
The Master must ensure that samples of all discharges of
cargo or fuel from the vessels systems, or if noticed in
adjacent waters to the ship, are taken and preserved in a
suitable container on board the vessel.
A Chain of Custody document must be completed for the
entire sampling and transport process
Properties :Specific Gravity
Results & Effects of Marine Pollution
Spreading and drifting
Training and exercise requirements
OPA 90 requires vessels response plans (VRP's) to describe tha training
of persons on a vessel to be carried out under a VRP to ensure the
safety of the vessel / facility and mitigate or prevent pollution.
Federal Training requirements
Federal Training guidelines (voluntary)
PREP (Preparedness for Response Exercise Program)
Refer to 'Appendix B' of your notes
The Master is to instruct all crew members that,
following any casualty, any contact with a person(s) not
contracted to the Company is to be made through the
companies designated person ashore.
Impact of Media Response
Guidelines : If unavoidably confronted by the Media
Be courteous and polite
Suggest that the reporter contact the Company directly for
accurate answers to questions
Do not speculate or guess. A simple "I don't know" is enough.
Do not try to confuse the matter or fabricate 'stories'
Do not say "No Comment" (Refer the reporter to the Company
designated person for the factual and authorised answer)
Do not make any statements suggesting cause or responsibility
Do not discuss company policies
Try to convey a 'spirit' of co-operation and understanding,
concern and helpfulness.
You have now completed the V.Ships
Marine Pollution Prevention ~ OPA 90
training module for Sea-Staff
Please ensure you complete the appropriate section
of your Personal Training Record Book
read the Vessel Response Plan appropriate for your
next appointed ship