Measuring and mapping cultures
1. Measuring and mapping culturesPart 2
3. Traditional/Secular-rational valuesThe contrast between societies in which religion is very
important and those in which it is not.
Societies near the traditional pole emphasize the
importance of parent-child ties and deference to
authority, along with absolute standards and
traditional family values, and reject divorce, abortion,
euthanasia, and suicide. These societies have high
levels of national pride, and a nationalistic outlook.
Societies with secular-rational values have the
opposite preferences on all of these topics.
4. Survival – Self-Expression ValuesThe unprecedented wealth that has accumulated in advanced
societies during the past generation means that an increasing
share of the population has grown up taking survival for
Thus, priorities have shifted from an overwhelming emphasis on
economic and physical security toward an increasing emphasis
on subjective well-being, self-expression and quality of life.
Value change progressing from constraint to choice
is a central aspect of Human Development because this value
change makes people mentally free, motivating them to
develop, unfold, and actualize their inner human potentials.
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00
r = .50***
12. Cultural Value OrientationsShalom H. Schwartz
13. Evolution of Cultural Value EmphasesAll societies confront basic problems in regulating
Societal responses to basic problems emphasize
certain values and sacrifice others
Prevailing value emphases in society express cultural
orientations most directly (cf. Inglehart, Hofstede)
Values are underlying conceptions of good &
desirable (e.g., success, justice, freedom, order)
14. Embeddedness-Autonomy• In Autonomous cultures people are autonomous,
bounded entities. They are encouraged to cultivate and
express their own preferences, feelings, ideas, and abilities,
and find meaning in their own uniqueness.
• There are two types of autonomy: Intellectual autonomy: own
ideas and intellectual directions independently
(broadmindedness, curiosity, creativity). Affective autonomy:
affectively positive experience for themselves (pleasure, exciting
life, varied life).
• In embedded cultures people are entities embedded in the
• Meaning in life comes through social relationships,
identifying with the group, participating in its shared way of
life, and striving toward its shared goals. Maintaining the
status quo and restraining actions that might disrupt ingroup solidarity or the traditional order. Important values are
social order, respect for tradition, security, obedience, and
15. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTUREIdeal Individual / Group
People: role players
embedded in groups
Unity with Nature
World at Peace
Social Order, Obedience
Respect for Tradition
Individuals independent actors
16. Hierarchy - EgalitarianismHierarchy
• Egalitarianism induces people to recognize one another as moral equals
who share basic interests as human beings.
• People are socialized to act for the benefit of others as a matter of choice.
• Important values: equality, social justice, responsibility, help, honesty.
• Hierarchy relies on hierarchical systems of ascribed roles to insure
responsible, productive behavior.
• Unequal distribution of power, roles, and resources are legitimate and even
• People are socialized to take the hierarchical distribution of roles for
granted, to comply with the obligations and rules attached to their roles, to
show deference to superiors and expect deference from subordinates.
• Important values: social power, authority, humility, and wealth.
17. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTUREIdeal way to elicit
Unity with Nature in society
World at Peace
Social Order, Obedience
Respect for Tradition
Socialize: Others morally equal
transcend selfish interests
18. Mastery-Harmony• Harmony emphasizes fitting into the social and
natural world, trying to appreciate and accept rather
than to change, direct, or exploit.
• Important values: world at peace, unity with nature,
protecting the environment, and accepting one’s
• Mastery encourages active self-assertion in order to
master, direct, and change the natural and social
environment to attain group or personal goals.
• Important values: ambition, success, daring, selfsufficiency, and competence.
19. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS: PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTUREfit harmoniously,
avoid change &
Regulate use of
human and natural
Unity with Nature
World at Peace
Social Order, Obedience
Respect for Tradition
master, control, change
through assertive action
20. Data and Sources77 cultural groups, 74 countries, N=55,022
Dominant cultural group: average of teachers &
students in most
45 value items with near equivalent meaning in withincountry analyses
a priori items to index 7 orientations validated in
culture level analysis
21. Cultural Map of World RegionsEMBEDDEDNESS
GERMANY E CANADA
CROATIA HONG KONG
23. Basic Human ValuesS.Schwartz
24. Defining Characteristics of Basic ValuesShared
beliefs about the desirable
transcend specific actions and situations
criteria of judgment
hierarchical order: priorities
type of motivation
25. Why are basic values important?motivate choice of behavior--what we do
justify past behavior--why we did it
standards to evaluate people & events-who and what we like, underlie our
direct attention and perception--what we
can serve as social indicators—reflect
fundamental societal change
26. Deriving Universal Value ContentsContent of values derives from basic goals people in all
societies must pursue
needs of biological organism--e.g. hedonism
demands of social interaction--e.g. achievement
requirements for group survival--e.g. security
People communicate to gain cooperation in pursuing
Values: Socially approved language of goals
Not culture specific—based in pan-human
Organized by motivational
similarities and oppositions
Prevention of loss
Promotion of gain
29. Deriving Etic Values• List of items drawn from
Past value questionnaires
Lists of motivations in literature
Texts of all major religions and philosophers
Items to express each value concept
• Collaborators invited to add items to tap values left
• Assess if added items yield other basic values or fall in
expected basic values
30. Measurement: SVSIn this questionnaire you are to ask yourself: "What values are important to ME as
guiding principles in MY life, and what values are less important to me?" Your task is
to rate how important each value is for you as a guiding principle in your life. Use
the rating scale below:
AS A GUIDING PRINCIPLE IN MY LIFE, this value is:
Before you begin, read the values, choose the one that is most important to you
….that is most opposed to your values…. Then rate the rest of the values.
EQUALITY (equal opportunity for all)
INNER HARMONY (at peace with myself)
SOCIAL POWER (control over others, dominance)
PLEASURE (gratification of desires)
31. How much like you is this person?Portrait Value Quest.
Exemplary Items and
How much like you is this person?
Not A little Somelike me like like me what
at all me
It is important to him to have his
own original ideas (SelfDirection)
It is important to him to have the
money to protect his interests
It is important to him that every
person in the world have equal
opportunities in life
32. Some Correlates of Value Prioritiesdelinquency, bullying, drug use
choose to study econ., business
ST/HE vs BE/CO
UN/SD vs. SE/PO
PO/AC vs BE
adopting technological innovations
AC/PO vs TR
SD/UN vs SE/TR/PO
ST/SD vs SE/TR/CO
readiness to work w/ out-groups
authoritarianism & nationalism
egalitarian gender atts
risky sexual behavior
UN/ST vs PO/SE
SD/UN vs PO/SE/CO
SD/UN vs CO/TR
ST/HE vs SE/CO/TR
33. More Correlates of Value PrioritiesEnvironmentally friendly behavior
UN/BE vs PO
Independence of counseling clients
SD/ST vs SE/TR/CO
Worrying about meaning in own life
ST/HE/PO vs UN/BE/TR
Subjective well-being (+ affect)
SD/AC/HE vs TR/SE/PO
Creativity (verbal, artistic)
SD/UN vs SE/TR/CO
Identifying with one’s nation
CO vs SD
Religious belief &behavior
TR/CO/SE vs ST/HE/SD
Helping and altruism
PO vs UN/BE/CO
UN/BE vs PO
34. Political Activism & EfficacyPolitical Activism & Efficacy
There are different ways of trying to improve things or to stop things
from going wrong in [Israel]. During the last 12 months, have you
done any of the following?
Contacted a politician, government or local government official
Worked in a political party or action group
Worked in another organisation or association
Worn or displayed a campaign badge/sticker
Signed a petition
Taken part in a lawful public demonstration
Boycotted certain products
Deliberately bought certain products for political, ethical or environmental
Donated money to a political organisation or group
Efficacy: How able are you to:
take an active role in a group involved with political issues?
make up your mind on political issues?
Value Priorities and Political Activism
36. Refining the Values Theory: Why?Theory arbitrarily split circular continuum
Objectives in modifying the theory
Increase precision of explanation
Increase predictive power
Better capture the motivational circle of values
10 values combined diverse facets (e.g., security)
e.g., Measure in millimeters, not centimeters
37. Newly Discriminated ValuesSelf-Direction Thought
Exemplary Items: It is important to him/her…
to develop his/her own opinions
to plan his activities independently
to be the one who tells others what to do
to be wealthy
never to be humiliated
to be personally safe and secure
that the state is strong and can defend its citizens
to obey all the laws
Interpersonal never to annoy anyone
to be humble
to care for nature
that the weak and vulnerable in society be protected
to accept people even when he/she disagrees with them
to take care of people he/she is close to
Dependability to be a dependable and trustworthy friend
39. Applications19 values permit detailed prediction & explanation of attitudes &
Other research topics with values (selected)
Relations to personality, subjective & objective well-being
Value change & transmission (generational, immigration, etc.)
Person-environment fit; value congruence & social cohesion
Childhood development of value structure & priorities
Value measurement—instruments, reliability, invariance
Genetic bases of value priorities
Values as mediators and moderators (e.g.)
Mediate: Do values mediate effects of age on voting? Gender on violence?
Moderate: Does the association of patriotism with life satisfaction depend
on the level of conformity-rules values?
40. Social axiomsA Social Axioms Survey bases on interview
protocols, and factor analysis of responses
to this survey revealed a similar five-factor
structure within each of five cultures: Hong
Kong, Venezuela, the USA, Japan, and
the social and physical environment, or the spiritual
world, and are in the form of an assertion about the
relationship between two entities or concepts.” (Leung
et al. (2002)
• A typical social axiom has the structure - A is related to B, where A
and B may be any entities, and the relationship between them may
be causal or correlational. Social axioms differ from values, which
assume the form, "A is good/desirable/important". Social axioms are
also different from normative beliefs or assertions, which are
prescriptive in nature. “We should help the poor” is a normative
assertion, not a social axiom.
• Some examples of social axioms:
People keep from lying only for fear of being exposed.
All is sold and bought in this world.
There do not exist women (men) whose sympathies cannot be won.
Great knowledge is acquired by little by little.
Being flexible in life is an indication of intelligence.
Every person needs an approach of his or her own.
A way out can be found in any situation.
42. Universal model of Social Axioms (Bond, Leung et al, 2004)Detection of
nature, a view that life produces unhappiness, that
people exploit others, and a mistrust of social
2. Social Complexity refers to the belief in multiple
ways of achieving a given outcome, and agreement
that human behavior is variable across situations.
3. Reward for Application refers to a general belief
that effort, knowledge, and careful planning will
lead to positive results.
Leung & Bond, 2004) refers to a belief in the reality
of a supreme being and the positive functions of
5. Fate Control refers to a belief that life events are predetermined and that there are ways for people to
influence these fated outcomes. These five,
orthogonal dimensions of social axioms have been
confirmed, and their constituent, defining items
established in 41 national groups (Leung & Bond,
1. Factor 1 Dynamic Externality combines items
from four of the factors previously identified
across cultures at the individual-level: reward for
application (10 items), religiosity (8 items), fate
control (2 items), and social complexity (1 item).
There are elements of religiosity and fate in this
factor, which give rise to the label “externality”,
but the emphasis on effort and control gives a
dynamic quality to this construct.
2. Factor 2 is defined by 11 items, and is labeled
Societal Cynicism, because all of them are from
the individual-level factor of social cynicism.
As constituted by these sets of 21 and 10 items,
these two factors correlated with each other at a
low level, r(39)=.21, ns.
46. Societal cynicismassociates with:
• a larger number of persons per room,
higher growth competitiveness,
more alcohol consumption,
less voter turnout,
more frequent access to the internet.
lower job satisfaction,
lower satisfaction with one’s company,
lower life satisfaction,
lower hedonic balance (positive affect minus negative
• and a faster pace of life
47. Societal cynicism• lower level of conscientiousness (a factor in the big-five
personality model concerning with competence, order,
dutifulness, self-discipline, deliberation, and the will to
• a rejection of the view that leadership is based on charisma
and values, and team-orientation,
• an acceptance of self-protective leadership and of autonomous
• more disagreement within in-groups,
• a stronger belief in exerting an amount of effort that is
proportional to the pay received,
• lower church attendance,
• lower achievement via conformity.
48. Dynamic ExternalityCountries higher in dynamic externality have
1. higher daytime temperature,
2. more males than females in the population,
3. higher age dependence ratio (a proportionally larger nonworking population),
higher average number of people per room,
higher population growth rate,
lower life expectancy,
7. higher adult illiteracy rate,
8. lower level of human development,
9. lower human rights observance
49. Dynamic Externality (cnt-d)1.
lower relative status of woman,
lower political rights and civil liberties,
less unemployment, more work hours per week,
a lower percentage of GDP spent on education and on health,
lower alcohol consumption,
lower capacity for reducing human vulnerability by means of human
sustenance and environmental health,
lower social and institutional capacity for environmental sustainability,
lower voter turnout rate, and fewer TV receivers per 1000 inhabitants.
This profile suggests that dynamic externality is generally related to less
favorable educational, social, and political development, even after its
already lower level of economic development has been controlled for.