Argumentation and Logical Fallacies
Question Time
The structure of argument
Toulmin’s model
How to support your thesis properly
-Argumentation using Example
-Argumentation using ANALOGY
-Argumentation using CAUSAL CONNECTION
-Argumentation using attribute
-Argumentation using authority
How to build an Argument ? !
LET us construct some arguments
Logical fallacies
Appeal to nature
AD HOminem
Questionable authority
Controversy inside the argument
hasty generalization
The allegations
False cause
no true Scotsman

Argumentation and Logical Fallacies

1. Argumentation and Logical Fallacies

2. Argumentation

•Communicative process of forming reasons and of drawing
conclusions and applying them to a case in discussion, in order to
convince others.
• Crucial and an integral part of the Debates
• Brings order and constructiveness into disputes

3. Question Time

What is the difference between
Argument and Opinion?

4. The structure of argument

1. Claim/Thesis
2. Support/Proof
3. Inference/Conclusion

5. Toulmin’s model

CLAIM – Using animals in
scientific experiments is
DATA - Scientific experiments
on animals can save human
WARRANT – What saves
human life's is justified

6. How to support your thesis properly

Using example
Using analogy
Using causal connections
Using attribute
Using authority

7. -Argumentation using Example

After a legalizing of marijuana, drug use has
declined in Netherlands

8. -Argumentation using ANALOGY

Marijuana is similar to alcohol. Because of the
legality of selling alcohol, selling marijuana should
be legalized as well

9. -Argumentation using CAUSAL CONNECTION

Legalization of marijuana will decrease the amount
of organized crime, because it will eliminate black
market which is controlled by organized crime.

10. -Argumentation using attribute

Those countries where punishment for illegal drug
selling is very strict, crime rates are lower. Strict
punishment is effective tool in fighting against

11. -Argumentation using authority

Professor Asmolov of MGU University has
conducted a detailed research of human
psychology on the subject of drug addiction. In his

12. How to build an Argument ? !

Thesis was proposed
Thesis was explained
Thesis was proven
Conclusion was made

13. LET us construct some arguments

14. Logical fallacies

15. Appeal to nature


16. AD HOminem

Attacking your opponent instead of attacking the

17. Questionable authority

British Scientists say that a dead human can reborn after
the lightning strike

18. Snowball

Bringing your argument to an absurd level, by making the logical
chain that actually breaks easily between the points
A-> B-> C-> D-> E.
My pencil was broken – >I will fail the exam because of this – >
I will be expelled from my university -> I won’t be able to find a job
–> I will have no money for the medicines -> I will die from the

19. Controversy inside the argument

Our house supports the idea of the humane
Let us legalize the capital punishment

20. hasty generalization

Windows XP was a great OS, therefore all Windows OS’ are great

21. The allegations

The mistake is that the speaker during speech
operates with such terms as “it’s bad" or "it's good",
while in the same time not saying
“why it is bad?” and “why it is good?”

22. False cause

Once streetlights are off, the sun sets.
Let us never to turn off lights, in order for the sun to
stay forever

23. no true Scotsman

"no true Scotsman would do such a thing“
“No true Scotsman” is a logical fallacy
that occurs when someone changes the
definition of a word to make a claim true
by default
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