Waste to energy a redeemer for investors, ecologists & environmentalists
INVESTORS, ECOLOGISTS & ENVIRONMENTALISTS
Waste is an inevitable product of society
One of the greatest challenges for future generations - how
to manage large quantities of waste in a sustainable way?
Till now global focus is to minimise the amount of waste
produced and to recycle larger fractions of waste materials.
Still considerable part of undesired end products.
More suitable solution than simple landfilling needs to be
The Waste Management Sector needs to be integrated with
The Energy Sector to meet the growing energy demand.
Waste to be seen not only as an undesired product of
society, but also a valuable energy resource as well.
GLOBAL WASTE MARKET – Over 32 Billion USD
Annual Growth – 5.5%
WTE technologies based on Thermal Energy Conversion
dominated the market accounting for 88.5% of the total
revenue in 2017.
Europe is the largest and most sophisticated market for WTE
technologies accounting for almost 46% of the total market
BIOLOGICAL WTE technologies growth faster
Global Waste Generation expected to be 6 million tons /day
by 2025 and 11 million tons /day by 2050.
The major fractions of solid waste
include paper, organic material,
plastics, glass, metal and textiles
As can be seen, nearly half of the
produced waste from society is
Specific waste products deriving from
construction, industrial and
commercial waste are not specified in
this figure, but in some cases can
represent the majority of a region’s
Source / Type
Food wastes, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, leather, yard
wastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes (e.g. bulky
items, consumer electronics, white goods, batteries, oil, tyres),
household hazardous wastes, e-wastes.
Housekeeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, wood, steel,
concrete, bricks, ashes, hazardous wastes.
Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, glass, metals,
special wastes, hazardous wastes, e-wastes.
Construction & Wood, steel, concrete, soil, bricks, tiles, glass, plastics,
insulation, hazardous waste.
Street sweepings, landscape & tree trimmings, sludge, wastes
from recreational areas.
Source / Type
Scrap materials, off-specification products, slag, tailings, top soil,
waste rock, process water & chemicals.
Infectious wastes (bandages, gloves, cultures, swabs, blood & bodily
fluids), hazardous wastes (sharps, instruments, chemicals),
radioactive wastes, pharmaceutical wastes.
Spoiled food wastes, rice husks, cotton stalks, coconut shells,
pesticides, animal excreta, soiled water, silage effluent, plastic,
scrap machinery, veterinary medicines.
Paper & Cardboard
Increase share of Renewable Energy
Reduce Green House Gas Emissions
Raise Environment Consciousness
Protect Environment from Hazards associated with
Advancement in WTE and Waste Management technologies.
IMPLEMENTATION OF WTE SUPPLY CHAINS
WASTE TO ENERGY SUPPLY CHAIN
WATER LAND MINERAL
COST OF INSTALLATION (COI)
OPERATION and MAINTENANCE COST – O&M
WASTE HANDLING and TREATMENT COST – WTB
PRICE OF ELECTRICITY
•Establishment of policy and government responsibility
•Provision of economic incentives and price supports
•Development of comprehensive performance evaluation program
•Internalization of externalities, social acceptance and investor mobilization
Policy and Government
Economic Incentives and
CHAIN FOR BIOENERGY UTILIZATION
Waste as a Fuel
Nature and volume of the incoming waste stream.
Energy content (calorific value) of the waste
WtE incineration should only be considered if the incoming waste
stream has an average net calorific value of at least 7 MJ/kg (i.e.
combustion process is self-sustaining).
For optimal operation of the plant, the supply of combustible MSW
should at least amount to 100,000 tonnes/year.
Seasonal changes in waste quality (holidays and festivals) impact
For countries where waste has significant water content and the
organic fraction of the waste is relatively high and sophisticated waste
collection and transportation structures are not in place, biochemical
methods of energy conversion should be the preferred option.
Indirect Generation – Waste – Heat – Steam – Electric Power
Efficiency level - 15% to 27%
Incineration Efficiency higher than Gasification
Waste combustion / Syn Gas – Steam
Upgrade of syngas to methane and injected in the gas network for utilization
in domestic boilers.
Heat and Power combined increases cycle efficiency to 40%
Proportion of Heat and Power chosen depending on the need.
District heating / Industrial Heat and Power is a typical example.
Syngas used in Engines upgraded to bio-methane
Syn Gas – Synthetic Fuel, Jet Fuel, Hydrogen, Ethanol, Bio Diesel
Syn Gas by Advanced Pyrolysis – Oil which by further treatment – Petrol and
Purification of Syn Gas is a costly process
Energy Supply - Taiwan
TO MODERN BIOMASS AND COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS
Projected Waste Generation Data by 2025, region
Total Urban MSW
Eastern & Central Asia
Latin America &
Middle East & North
East Asia & Pacific
WTE Technology Option depends on – Waste Quality &
Heat Value, EPC Cost, O&M Cost.
Incineration of MSW – Most techno commercially viable
CFB Technology – For very high moisture Waste with very
low Heat Value.
Capital Investment cost depends on Technology and Size of
Gasification technologies are usually more expensive than
the usual grate combustion technologies.
Investment costs for the same technology and similar plant
size can also vary significantly due to location, site
implementations and land availability.
Generation Technologies (15 MW Output)
GLOBALLY WITH A CONSERVATIVE
FORECAST UP TO 2025
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
Regulations and Targets
Power Purchase Price
SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACTS
SOCIO ECONOMIC BENEFITS
Non- Methane Volatile
HYDROCARBONS – CxHy
Over 15 Million tons of waste generated in Ukraine annually of which MSW is 4-5%.
Annual MSW grew up by almost 150% between 2000 to 2017.
95% sent to landfills.
Four incineration plants in Kiev have spent their 25 years life.
27 Nos. of sorting lines function in several cities.
Segregated waste collection is in almost 510 cities which covers only 1.9% of the urban
and rural inhabited facilities.
1.2 % waste is incinerated, 2.5% recycled and the balance dumped in landfills.
Since 2013 recycled facilities have increased but still very low at 8%.
Recycling level only 3-5% against the EU directive of 50%.
26 cities in Ukraine have population of over 250,000 which covers 34% of the population.
Hence only one third of Ukraine is blessed with environmentally safe waste disposal.
Waste disposal facilities overloaded.
Failure to meet sanitation requirements.
Possibilities of expanding landfills very limited
Huge release of Methane.
Continuous contamination of ground water.
State owned enterprise for management of waste as
secondary raw material.
Ensures appropriate functioning of collection, preservation
and utilization of waste.
Ongoing analysis and refinement of existing systems
Monitoring of utilization rates in containers.
Implementation of environment safety principles.
Huge initiatives taken to produce top class polyethylene
tere-phthalate (PET) flocks and polypropylene granules from
Target to upgrade MSW management system
Construction of 10 recycling complexes in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk,
Chernivtsi, Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi, Lviv, Sumy, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and
Public – Private Partnership model to be considered.
Legislation proposed that from January 2018 only waste after primary recycling
and incineration can be disposed.
National Waste Management Program 2013-2020 approved by Govt. of
Introduce new technologies
Implementation of measures for decreasing volume of waste
Grant of 466 million Euros out of which 37% will be financed from Sate budget
and 63% from local budgets.
First phase would focus on removal of dangerous toxic waste.
Second phase would focus on creation of modern infrastructure for waste
Direct ownership of waste, obligation to prevent environmental harm
The right to gain profit by managing assets and transferring ownership. The responsibility to
compensate for adverse environmental impacts
Organizing collection and removal of garbage from residential areas
Local state administrations
Coordination of collection, recycling, utilization, and disposal of waste
Local state administrations
Proper operation of infrastructural facilities and delivering waste collection, transportation,
and utilization services for a specified fee
authorized under contracts
Compilation and maintenance of a register of waste generation, processing, and
utilization, as well as a register of waste disposal sites
Local state administrations
Coordination of maintaining records on generation, processing, decontamination, utilization,
and removal of waste, environmental certification
Local state administrations
Coordination of specially designated authorities for MSW management, licensing, and
monitoring the delivery of full-cycle services, assessment of technical, sanitary and
environmental safety of existing facilities, and control over record-keeping of waste
generation, collection, processing, utilization, and disposal; limits concurrence
for generation and disposal of waste, control over record- keeping of a register of facilities
Ukrainian Ministry of
Ecology and Natural
Policy enablement and implementation of state programs in the area of MSW; coordination
of activities undertaken by local executive authorities in the area of municipal waste;
regulative and procedural guidelines on municipal waste management; development and
approval of governmental standards, norms, and rules in municipal waste management,
schemes for sanitary cleaning of residential areas
Ukrainian Ministry of Regional
Housing and Utilities
the current state
An operator selected in a
municipal or regional
bidding may experience
difficulties entering the
Garbage collection and
transportation operators are
already working directly
entrepreneurs and enterprises
Enterprises determine of their
own which operator to work
Creating Economic Incentives and Funding Mechanism for
Developing Waste Recycling System.
Invite Developers to Set up Waste to Energy plants on BOT
basis within a reasonable Gate Fee and Green Tariff Regime.
Landfill Gas Utilization to produce Electricity or Heat.
Creating Efficient Data Support System for Decision Making.
Setting up of a Coordinating Agent like Green Dot
organizations and delegating authority.
Producers to delegate powers to non-profit organizations for
Advancement of the MSW Sector in Ukraine
Improvement in Systems of Fees and Payments.
Programmatic and Goal Oriented Approach to Waste Management
Implementing Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
Optimal implementation of PPP and IPP projects in the MSW
Using Data to guide reforms.
Informing the public.
Implementation / Enforcement of laws.
National Agency for Waste Management.
EPR / Green Dot.
Compulsory Use of / Connection to Main Municipal Services.
• MSW collection and transportation;
Service contract (A private company provides one or
more MSW management services)
• Maintenance and repair of the collection and transport
infrastructure (for example: garbage truck maintenance);
• Operational management of a landfill
• Comprehensive MSW management services:
Management contract (Aprivate company provides
most or all MSW management services)
Leasing agreement (long-term, comprehensive
management of a MSW system, management of
a sorting facility)
Concession/BOT (A private company is entirely
responsible for MSW management services, it
builds and manages a specific infrastructure
Joint venture (A private company and local
authorities jointly own the infrastructure)
a private company organizes waste collection,
transportation and disposal, manages landfills, prevents
creation of illegal dumps and other
• Landfill management and modernization
• Construction of a landfill;
• Upgrade of an existing landfill (installation
of sorting and landfill gas recovery systems);
• Construction of a garbage recycling plant
• Construction of specific facilities (landfills, waste
• Projects for comprehensive development of the
waste management infrastructure