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Police In USA
The US police system arose under the
in uence of the democratic ideas of the
Declaration of Independence of 1776 and
the principles of the Constitution of 1787.
In the US, there are three levels of state
power: federal, state and local, and state and
local governments initially enjoyed
To the beginning of XX century. In the
United States, the following system of police
bodies has developed:
Police organizations in cities and towns.
The Sheriffs and the agencies they lead in
the districts .
Police formations of the states.
The police organizations of the federal
government, which were part of the
ministries of justice, post, treasury, internal
affairs, defense, etc.
In the US, the rst permanent police
department was established in 1845 in New
York (New York City Police Department).
1. Citizenship of the United States
2. The age should be more than 21 years, most
branches require a maximum age of 34-35 years, but
some do not have requirements for maximum age;
3. They do not have previous convictions
4.The candidate must nish the police school, some
departments need college or, instead, the service in
the US Armed Forces
US law de nes the powers of the police as
rights transferred by the state or the
municipal government for the
implementation of legislative regulation of
civil interests, protection of safety, health,
and everything related to citizens, as well as
for carrying out preventive activities in
respect of criminal offenses, mass actions
and disorders associated with them.
The precise terms of reference of the police
are very dif cult to de ne, because it is
constantly replenished in connection with
the development of the level of public life,
technology, the emergence of new state
bodies or the reorganization of those.
The rules for the use of force by US police of cers are
formalized in the form of classi cations of levels of force
and levels of resistance to the use of force. Developed in the
1980s, these rules have served as the basis for similar rules
in many countries.
In the US, there are federal law enforcement
agencies that investigate federal crimes (FBI,
Drug Enforcement Administration and so on.
But the main burden falls on the police of
states and cities. The head of the local police
authority - commissar, superintendent or
chief of police - is usually appointed by the
mayor, the head of the city or local
legislature, and is sometimes chosen by
popular vote. At the district level, the head
of the police department is usually called the
"sheriff". The sheriffs are almost universally
elected to this position and are given the
right to appoint deputies. The sheriff's
administration also deals with the
maintenance of the district jail and the
security of the courtroom.
Modern police formations often include
special forces to deal with speci c problems
(for example, SWAT units).
In most American cities, tactical units are
specially trained and equipped to prevent
riots and maintain order in emergency