Physics and chemistry of surface phenomena
1. Zaporizhzhya State Medical University Analytical Chemistry Department PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF SURFACE PHENOMENA Lecturer: Monaykina Yulia Vitalievna 2016
occur at the interface in heterogeneous
The spontaneous process of solute
accumulation at the interface is called
The adsorbed solute is called
The interface may be: gas – liquid,
liquid – liquid,
solid – liquid,
solid – gas.
4. Adsorption at the gas-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaceThe resultant of the forces acting on a molecule in a bulk is equal to zero.
The resultant of the forces acting on the molecules in a surface layer is
directed to the bulk of the liquid phase perpendicularly to its surface.
The result is a surface layer with excess of surface energy that is the
surface Gibbs free energy GS.
the surface tension of the solvent is called
A measure of the surface activity is a derivative of the surface tension
on the concentration, taken with an opposite sign :
For narrow concentration ranges the formula is:
The surface activity increases about 3 -3,5 times
with each addition of a methylene group to the
onto surfaces in two ways:
In physisorption (physical adsorption), there is a weak
van der Waals attraction of the adsorbate to the surface.
During this process the chemical identity of the adsorbate
remains intact, i.e. no breakage of the covalent structure of
the adsorbate takes place.
In chemisorption (chemical adsorption), the adsorbate
sticks to the solid by the formation of a chemical bond with
Solutes adsorption by solid adsorbents is more complex as the
solvent molecules can compete with adsorbate molecules for the
adsorptive sites on the adsorbent surface as well as can interact
with the adsorbate and adsorbent surface.
Two kinds of adsorption on a solid adsorbent are
Surface area of adsorbent. Larger sizes of surface area
imply a greater adsorption capacity.
Particle size of adsorbent. Smaller particle sizes reduce
internal diffusional and mass transfer limitation to the
penetration of the adsorbate inside the adsorbent (i.e.,
equilibrium is more easily achieved and nearly full
adsorption capability can be attained)
Contact time or residence time. The longer the time the
more complete the adsorption will be.
1 -carbohydrate glycoproteides
2 - lipid bilayer;
3 - integral protein;
4 - "heads" of phospholipids;
5 - peripheral protein;
6 - cholesterol;
7 - fatty acid "tails" of phospholipids