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Martes zibellina


Martes zibellina
Hu Wentao


Economic Value
Distribution area
Population status


Sable (scientific name: Martes zibellina): The sable is a
species of mink native to northern Asia, active and hunting
during the day. Hunts small prey, including rodents, birds and
fish, by smell and hearing. The fur of sable is called mink,
which is only produced in the northeast region of China, and is
called "the three treasures of the northeast" together with
"ginseng and deer antler". Widely distributed in the Ural
Mountains, Siberia, Mongolia, Northeast China and Hokkaido,
Japan and other places.
紫貂 学名 Martes zibellina 紫貂是一种原产于亚洲北部的水貂
白天活动和狩猎。 通过嗅觉和听觉捕猎小型猎物 包括啮齿动物、鸟
类和鱼类。紫貂皮称为貂皮 仅产于中国东北地区 与“人参、鹿茸”
并称为“东北三宝”。 广泛分布于乌拉尔山脉、西伯利亚、蒙古、中


Morphological characteristics形态特征
The sable is about 40 cm long, weighs about 1 kg, has a tail length of 12 cm, and has a life
span of about 8-15 years. The body is slender, the limbs are short and strong.Wild sables
are brown-black or brown all over (domestic sables are black, white, blue, yellow, etc.);
slightly mixed with white needle hair; the head is light gray-brown, the ear margins are
white, and there are yellow or yellow-white throat spots The chin coat is orange-yellowbrown; the chest is tan, and the belly is pale. The winter hair is dense, the coat is thick, the
whole body coat is tan, the chest, abdomen and body sides are the same color, and the
white needle hair is scattered all over the body.紫貂长约40厘米 重约1公斤 尾长12厘米
寿命约8-15年。身体细长 四肢短而结实。野生紫貂全身棕黑色或棕褐色 国内紫貂有黑、白、蓝、
黄等 略混有白针毛 头部浅灰褐色 耳缘白色 喉部有黄色或黄白色斑点 颏毛橙黄褐色 胸
部是棕褐色的 腹部是苍白的。冬毛浓密 被毛厚实 全身被毛呈棕褐色 胸腹及体侧同色 全身


Sable mainly lives in the cold sub-arctic coniferous
forest and mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest
area at an altitude of 800-1600 meters, located north of
41° north latitude. The Da Xing‘an Mountains and
some Xiao Xing’an Mountains and the Altai Mountains
belong to the sub-frigid coniferous forest zone. The
altitude is between 1,000 and 2,000 meters. snow forest
climate. The Xiaoxinganling and Changbai Mountains
belong to the mixed coniferous and broad-leaved
forest zone, with an altitude of about 1000-1600 meters.
The climate is relatively humid and cool due to its
proximity to the ocean, and the vegetation is very rich.
There are tree species such as oak, linden, birch, oak,
elm and locust, and shrubs and other vegetation are
also abundant. 紫貂主要生活在北纬41°以北海拔800-1600
米的寒冷的亚北极针叶林和针阔混交林区。 大兴安岭和部分
小兴安岭、阿尔泰山属于亚寒带针叶林带。 海拔在1000到
2000米之间。 雪林气候。 小兴安岭和长白山属针阔混交林
带 海拔约1000-1600米。 由于靠近海洋 气候相对湿润凉
爽 植被非常丰富。 有橡树、椴树、桦树、橡树、榆树和槐
等树种 灌木等植被也很丰富。


living habits生活习惯
The sable is good at climbing trees, is agile and dexterous, and is active in the
depths of the jungle. Nests in stone crevices, tree holes and under tree roots;
usually live in a settled camp, but often wander and migrate due to food
abundance and climate change, and also often live in simple temporary resting
nests. Except for the mating period, it lives alone; its sight and hearing are keen,
and its movements are fast. When disturbed, it disappears into the woods in an
instant. Active foraging day and night, but mostly at night. When food is in short
supply, they also come out to hunt during the day, and their activity range is
within 5-10 square kilometers. They mostly catch prey on the ground, and they are
also very flexible in climbing trees. When food is scarce in winter, they migrate to
the lower mountains and return when the weather warms. The sable's gait on the
ground is mainly divided into small steps and running and jumping. The main
predators are yellow-throated marten and raptors.
Sable's food is mainly small birds and beasts, and they also eat insects and plant
foods such as pine nuts and berries
紫貂善于爬树 敏捷灵巧 活跃于丛林深处。在石缝、树洞和树根下筑巢 平时生活在固
定的营地 但由于食物丰富和气候变化 经常流浪和迁徙 也经常住在简单的临时休息巢
穴中。除交配期外 单独生活 它的视觉和听觉都很敏锐 而且它的动作也很快。受到惊
扰时 它会瞬间消失在树林中。日夜活跃觅食 但大多在夜间。当食物短缺时 它们白天
也会出来打猎 它们的活动范围在5-10平方公里之内。它们大多在地上捕捉猎物 爬树也
非常灵活。冬天食物匮乏时 它们会迁移到较低的山区 并在天气变暖时返回。紫貂在地
紫貂的食物主要是小型鸟类和野兽 也吃昆虫和松子、浆果等植物性食物。


Distribution area分布区域
Distributed in China, Finland, Japan (Hokkaido), South Korea, North
Korea, Mongolia, Poland, and the Russian Federation.
China is only found in the Daxing'anling, Xiaoxing'anling, Laoyeling,
Zhangguangcailing and Wanda Mountains in Heilongjiang, Changbai
Mountain in Jilin, the cold forests and snowy plains in Huanren County
in Liaoning, and the Altai Mountains in northern Xinjiang, which are
intermittently distributed.
分布于中国、芬兰、日本 北海道 、韩国、朝鲜、蒙古、波兰和俄罗斯联邦。
中国仅见于黑龙江的大兴安岭、小兴安岭、老爷岭、张广才岭、万达山 吉林
长白山 辽宁桓仁县的寒林雪原 新疆北部的阿尔泰山等。 间断分布。


Breeding method繁殖方式
Most sables build their nests in tree holes or on rock piles.
There is a wiggly estrus phenomenon in spring, and the real estrus mating
period is between June and August. The gestation period of female mink is
about 229-276 days, and the fertilized eggs have a diapause period, and they
can only implant and develop between February and March of the following
year. Each sable has 2-4 cubs, but most of them are 1-3 cubs. According to
breeding observation, female minks aged 3-6 have the highest calving rate,
and female minks aged 7-10 still have the ability to give birth. Males are
sexually mature at about 3.5 years old, females are earlier. Lifespan is 16-18
years.大多数黑貂在树洞或石堆上筑巢。春季有扭动发情现象 真正的发情交配期为68月。雌性水貂的妊娠期约为229-276天 受精卵有滞育期 只能在次年2-3月间着床
发育。每只黑貂有2-4只幼崽 但大多数是1-3只幼崽。据育种观察 3-6岁的雌性水貂
产犊率最高 7-10岁的雌性水貂仍有生育能力。雄性在3.5岁左右性成熟 雌性更早。


Population status种群现状
Not many sables are artificially bred in zoos. In 1957, the Jilin Specialty Products Research Institute of China began to carry out the
breeding experiment of caged sables. More than 250 wild sables were introduced for many times. These wild sables mainly came
from the Changbai Mountains. Hengdaohezi Wild Animal Breeding Farm in Heilongjiang Province introduced 8 Xiaoxing'anling sables;
in 1972, 2 Altai sables from Xinjiang were introduced, and in the 1980s, the hybrid descendants of Altai sable and Changbai Mountain
sable were successively obtained. The breeding group of caged sables in Jilin Specialty Products Research Institute has reached more
than 500.
Because the fecundity of sable is not too strong, coupled with the long-term large-scale hunting, as well as the pollution caused by
large-scale deforestation and spraying of rat poison, its number has dropped sharply. According to the distribution of mink fur
purchase records in the early 1970s, the production of sable in Daxing‘anling accounted for about 10% of the total purchase volume;
the production of sable in Changbai Mountain accounted for about 30%, and the main producing areas were Fusong, Changbai,
Jiaohe, Dunhua, Antu, Helong and other counties and Wuchang City, Heilongjiang Province; Xiaoxing’anling sable production
accounts for more than 60% of the total purchase volume, the main production areas are Shangzhi, Fangzheng, Yanshou, Ning‘an,
Hailin, Linkou, Yilan and other counties and Yichun City. The output of Xinjiang Altai sable has not been counted. According to the
mink acquisition data, if the hunting rate is 25%-30%, the reserves of sable resources in Northeast China will be about 6,000。
The nature reserves in the distribution area of sable in China mainly include the Huzhong, Hanma, Nuomin River, Honghe, Shanhe,
Jingbo Lake, Fenglin, Longfeng Lake and Laoxiangdingzi of Jilin Changbai Mountain in Heilongjiang.
动物园里没有多少紫貂是人工养殖的。 1957年 中国吉林特产研究所开始进行笼养紫貂的繁育试验。多次引进野生紫貂250余种。这些野生紫貂
主要来自长白山。黑龙江省横道河子野生动物养殖场引进小兴安岭紫貂8条 1972年引进新疆阿尔泰紫貂2株 1980年代先后获得阿尔泰紫貂和
由于紫貂的繁殖力不太强 再加上长期的大规模捕猎 以及大规模砍伐森林和喷洒鼠药造成的污染 其数量急剧下降。根据1970年代初貂皮采购
记录的分布 大兴安岭的紫貂产量约占总采购量的10% 长白山紫貂产量约占30% 主产区为抚松、长白、交河、敦化、安图、和龙等县和黑龙
江省武昌市 小兴安岭紫貂产量占采购总量的60%以上 主要产区为尚志、方正、延寿、宁安、海林、林口、宜兰等县和宜春市。新疆阿尔泰紫貂
的产量没有统计。根据水貂采集数据 如果猎杀率为25%-30% 东北地区的貂资源储量约为6000头。


1. Strengthen protection, because the value of mink is very high and vulnerable to
poaching, strict law enforcement is particularly important for the protection of sable;
2. Strengthen its habitat protection. Although China does not have a special reserve
for the protection of sable, the management of nature reserves with rich sable
resources should include a special management plan for sable to ensure the
recovery of the sable population;
3. A planned reintroduction project in areas with the original sable distribution and
suitable habitat conditions may be considered to facilitate population recovery;
4. Develop sable breeding business, meet the market demand for sable, and help
protect wild populations. 1、加强保护 由于貂的价值很高 容易被偷猎 严格执法对紫
2.加强栖息地保护。 虽然我国没有专门的紫貂保护保护区 但对于拥有丰富紫貂资源的自然
保护区的管理 应包括紫貂专项管理方案 保证紫貂种群的恢复
3. 可考虑在原有黑貂分布和适宜栖息地条件的地区进行有计划的放归项目 以促进种群恢复
4、发展紫貂养殖业务 满足市场对紫貂的需求 帮助保护野生种群。


Economic Value经济价值
Mink fur is a precious fur and one of the traditional export fur types in China. Among the international fur commodities, mink has the highest price. The
world's merchants store mink like gold, so it is also called "soft gold". In ancient China, the emperor's attendants liked to use the tail of the mink to decorate
their hats. According to the "Book of Jin, Zhao Wanglun Biography", at that time, due to the excessive appointment of officials and the shortage of sable tails,
dog tails were used instead. Therefore, people sarcastically say: "If the mink is insufficient, the dog's tail will continue." The idiom "the dog's tail will continue
the mink" comes from this. In the Qing Dynasty, there were strict regulations that only high-ranking officials and nobles could wear mink fur, and a few furs
were used to raise the value of a few rulers. In fact, at that time, the government monopolized the production of mink fur, so there was a saying: "The first
grade Xuanhu, the second grade mink, and the third grade and fourth grade wear Japanese swords." , second in value to Xuanhu). Sable is a precious and rare
fur beast. In China, it is known as one of the Three Treasures of Northeast China (ginseng, mink, deer antler). As early as 1929, the former Soviet Union solved
the problem of cage breeding of sable, and realized enterprise breeding and management. It was designated as one of the primary development varieties. The
annual output of Russian sable is about 150,000 pieces, and it has a monopoly in the world. Since 1957, China has introduced wild sable domestication in
Beijing Fangshan Wildlife Farm, Liaoning Jinzhou Wildlife Farm, Jilin Provincial Institute of Specialty Products and other units. In the future, it will focus on the
research and expansion of the institute, and it has become the only provenance base of sable in the country. Since sable has always been a treasure in fur, it is
well-known at home and abroad, and is known as the crown of fur. In the international market, the price has been relatively stable, and each skin is priced at
150-300 US dollars. With the increase in worldwide demand, breeding sable will have broad prospects for development.貂皮是一种珍贵的毛皮 是我国传统出口
毛皮品种之一。在国际毛皮商品中 貂皮价格最高。世界上的商人把水貂藏得像黄金一样 所以它也被称为“软黄金”。在中国古代 皇帝的侍从喜欢用貂的尾巴来装饰他
们的帽子。据《晋书·赵王伦传》记载 当时由于官吏过多 貂尾不足 改用狗尾。因此 人们讥讽地说 “貂皮不足 狗尾巴继续。”成语“狗尾续貂”由此而来。清代有
严格的规定 只有高级官员和贵族才能穿貂皮 用少数皮草来提高少数统治者的价值。事实上 当时政府垄断了貂皮的生产 所以有一种说法 “一品玄虎 二品貂 三品
四品穿日本刀。” 价值仅次于玄湖 。紫貂是一种珍贵稀有的毛皮兽。在中国 它被称为东北三宝 人参、貂皮、鹿茸 之一。早在1929年 前苏联就解决了紫貂网箱养
殖问题 实现了企业养殖经营。被指定为重点开发品种之一。俄罗斯紫貂年产量约15万只 在世界上具有垄断地位。 1957年以来 中国在北京房山野生动物养殖场、辽宁
锦州野生动物养殖场、吉林省特产研究所等单位引进了野生紫貂驯化。未来将重点研究和扩建研究所 成为全国唯一的紫貂种源基地。由于紫貂历来是皮草中的珍品 因此
享誉海内外 被誉为皮草之冠。在国际市场上 价格一直比较稳定 每张皮的售价在150-300美元之间。随着世界范围内需求的增加 养殖紫貂将具有广阔的发展前景。


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Hu Wentao
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