Категория: Английский язык
Present perfect continuous
1. Dental ClinicsKaraganda State Medical University
Chair of Foreign Languages
Made by: Sazonova.E
Faculty of Dentistry
2. Dental clinicsDental clinics provide patients with preventive and
standard dental care, including emergency dental
care. Services include teeth cleanings, teeth
whitening, x-rays, root canals, crowns, fillings and
orthodontics. Multiple types of dental practices
exist, each of which caters to a different type of
community, including the privately insured, the
publicly insured and the uninsured.
3. Dental clinicsAccording to the American Dental Association, nearly all
dentists are in private practice. Specifically, it is estimated as
many as three out of four dentists are solo practitioners.
Private practitioners work as licensed, self-employed
dentists. Because of the relatively small size of the
organization, patients usually get more personalized care
from private practitioners.Because there is no administrative
structure, solo practitioners must oversee administrative
tasks for the practice, including bookkeeping and
procurement. A hospital dental clinic operates as a division of
a hospital group. Its dentists work directly for the hospital.
These dental clinics usually are on hospital grounds or in
annexed buildings near the hospital.
4. Dental clinicsCommunity health centers frequently provide dental services in
addition to general health care services. These types of clinics
serve a particular community or population and combine the efforts
of hospitals, the government and the health care industry to provide
its community members with adequate health care services. Often,
such health centers receive federal funding to subsidize care for the
poor and uninsured.Unlike private practices in which one dentist
operates a clinic by himself, a group practice is an association of
dental professionals. These professionals work together, sharing
space and using the same equipment. Although care might be less
personal than private practice, the presence of more dentists allows
the practice to treat more patients and pool resources to buy more
equipment and hire more staff.
5. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSThe present perfect continuous is made up of two
elements: the present perfect of the verb 'to
be' (have/has been), and the present participle of
the main verb (base+ing)
6. Structure of sentencePositive Sentence.
• Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (Present participle) + Object + Time reference
• Subject + has been/have been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference
If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then auxiliary verb “has been” is used after subject in
If subject is “You, They or plural” then auxiliary verb “have been” is used after subject in sentence.
• Subject +”Not” between the Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + Object + Time reference
• Subject + has not been/have not been + (1st form of verb or base verb + ing) + object + time reference
To make negative sentence, the word “not” is written between the auxiliary verbs, so it becomes like “has not
been or have not been”. The rule for using auxiliary verb “has been or have been” in negative sentences is as
same as mentioned above.
• Auxiliary verb + Subject + Auxiliary verb + main verb (present participle) + object + time reference
• Has/have + Subject + been + (1st form of verb or base verb+ing) + object + time reference.Interrogative
sentence starts with auxiliary verb. If the subject is “He, She, It, singular or proper name” then the sentence
starts with auxiliary verb “has” and auxiliary verb“been” is used after subject
If subject is “You, They or plural” then the sentence starts with auxiliary verb “have” and “been” is used after
7. FUNCTIONS OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSThe present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time between 'before
now' and 'now'. The speaker is thinking about something that started but
perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in
the process as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or
may have just finished.
ACTIONS THAT STARTED IN THE PAST AND CONTINUE IN THE PRESENT
She has been waiting for a dentist all day (= and she's still waiting now).
I've been working with this patient since eight o'clock this morning (= and I still haven't
They have been travelling since last October (= and they're not home yet).
ACTIONS THAT HAVE JUST FINISHED, BUT WE ARE INTERESTED IN THE
She has been cooking since last night (= and the food on the table looks delicious).
It's been raining (= and the streets are still wet).
Someone's been eating my chips (= half of them have gone).
8. VERBS WITHOUT CONTINUOUS FORMSWith verbs not normally used in the continuous
form, use the simple present perfect.
I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.
9. EXAMPLES OF TOPIC SENTENCES+ She has been waiting for a dentist all day .
- She has not been waiting for a dentist all
? Has she been waiting for a dentist all day?