Категория: Английский язык
The establishment of the phonologically relevant features
1. Problem 2 of the phonological analysis: the establishment of the phonologically relevant features.
What is the topic of my
What kinds of irrelevant features do
Is the system of phonemes
features on which all phonological oppositions in the language are
• Phonologically relevant feature of a phoneme is constant
distinctive feature which distinguish this phoneme from all the
other phonemes of the language.
Each allophone of a certain phoneme is characterized by definite
phonologically relevant features plus a number of irrelevant
(or incidental) features.
Phonologically irrelevent feature distinguish the allophone
from all the other allophones of the phoneme.
Irrelevant may be of two kinds: - indispensable (they
are always present at allophones), - incidental.
Relevant features make up the basis of the
phonological description, while irrelevant features are
redundant from the phonological point of view but still
very important for the articulation of the sounds.
6. The phonologically relevant features that characterize the phoneme /p/ are, therefore, bilabial, occlusive and fortis.Aspiration,plosiveness,labialization etc.are
phonolodically irrelevant features
Phonologically irrelevant does not necessarily
mean useless for communication.
It has already been mentioned that the
aspiration /p/ helps the listener to distinguish it
(as in pride- bride, pie –buy)
On the most general principle all the phonemes are divided into
vowels and consonants.
The chief difference lies in the fact that vowels have only voice while
consonants have voice and noise combined.
The difference on the articulatory level lies on the absence or
presence of obstruction that is the case of consonants various
obstruction are made. In case of vowels there is no obstruction.
type of obstruction (occlusive/constrictive,
- the active organ (labial, bilabial, labiodental/lingual/glottal)
- the force of articulation, work of local cords (lenis)
- two foci
- the shape of narrow (oral, nasal, lateral articulation)
- place of obstruction
- presense or absense of voice
9. Distinctive features for English consonants: place of articulation; manner of articulation; absence/ presence of voiceManner of articulation
1.1.1.plosives [b],[d],[g]; [p],[t],[k]
1.1.2.affricates [ʤ], [ʧ]
1.2.sonorants [m], [n], [ŋ]
1.1bilabial [p],[b], [m], [w]
1.2.labio-dental [f], [v]
2.1.4.palate-alveolar [ʃ],[ʒ],[ʤ], [ʧ]
2.3. backlingual [k],[g],[ŋ]
And so on.
In the system of English vowels the only relevant feature is
distinctions in their quality ,which are based on the slight
differences in the tongue positions when producing these
thus, the opposition /i: - i/ is based on the following
phonologically relevant features:
high- narrow vs. high- broad , fully-front vs. front- retracted.
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