Introduction to Computer systems. Computer architecture
1. Introduction to Computer systems. Computer architecture.Lecture 1.
Teacher: Aziyeva Nurgul Tanirbergenovna
The Discipline: Information and communication technology (ICT)
central storage system and various peripheral devices such as a printers,
scanners, or routers. Each computer connected to the system can operate
independently, but has the ability to communicate with other external
devices and computers.
A computer system is one that is able to take a set of inputs, process them
and create a set of outputs. This is done by a combination of hardware and
The diagram below shows you the idea of a computer system in its most basic
processed in some way. The outcome of the processing is sent to an output or it
may be stored until some event happens to cause it to be output.
For processing to take place, there needs to be a set of instructions of what
needs to be done. This set of instructions is called a program.
This system is called a stored-program computer.
4. The very first commercial computer in the entire world of this type was built in Britain in 1949 and was called the Manchester(Ferranti) Mark 1, see below.
The beauty of this type of computer system is that it is flexible - the machine performs a
different task by simply loading a different program from storage.
5. The components of modern computer science Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires,transistors,
and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.
All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:
memory: enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.
mass storage device: allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common
mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.
input device: usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data
and instructions enter a computer.
output device: a display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has
central processing unit (CPU): the heart of the computer, this is the component that actually
In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic components to
work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from
one part of the computer to another.
6. Computer Classification, By Size and Power Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there isconsiderable overlap:
personal computer: a small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor. In
addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data,
a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for saving data.
workstation: a powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a personal
computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor.
minicomputer: a multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of
mainframe: a powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or
thousands of users simultaneously.
supercomputer: an extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions
of instructions per second.
7. Common PC Components This table lists all of the common computer components, what they connect to and what they are used for.№ COMPONENT
The motherboard or mainboard is the main circuitboard which interconnects to all other
components. The motherboard allows communication and power to flow throughout the
2 Processor (CPU)
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer system. This is the part of the
computer which processes all inputs and decides how they will be outputed.
3 Memory (RAM)
Random Access Memory (RAM) is your computers short term memory and enables the
computer system to perform multitasking functions such as copy and paste or type
information into a word document without it saving.
The Video/Graphics Card is responsible for receiving visual inputs and displaying (outputing)
all visual data. Graphics processing has a very difficult task which is why modern graphics
4 Video/Graphics Card cards now have Graphics Processor Units (GPU) which work like a CPU but for visual data
only. This allows quicker rendering of 3D images and streaming of high definition video and
leaves the CPU free to work on all other data.
The Network Interface Card (NIC) allows your computer system to communicate and pass
data to other computer systems within a Local Area Network (LAN) or over the internet to
Wide Area Networks (WAN).
6 Hard Drive (HDD)
The Hard Drive (HDD) is the long term storage for your computer system. Hard Drives are
used to archive and store data for future retreival.
The CD/DVD ROM Drive allows your computer system to read data from external media like
7 CD/DVD Drive (ROM) CDs and DVDs. Generally there are two types of CD/DVD ROM; readers and writers
The Sound Card allows for the input (Microphones) and output (Speakers) of audio related
8 Sound Card